Back
 MSA  Vol.10 No.3 , March 2019
High-Density Polyethylene Based on Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets/Nano-Magnesium Oxide: An Investigation of Thermal Properties and Morphology
Abstract: In this study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) composites reinforced with a 2 wt.% concentration of nano-magnesia (n-MgO) were fabricated using an injection moulding machine. The thermal properties and morphological structures of the composites were investigated. The XRD results showed the peaks of xGnP and n-MgO, where the intensity of the xGnP peaks became stronger with adding increasing amounts of xGnP into the polymermatrix. In terms of morphology, some agglomeration of particles was observed within the matrix, and the agglomeration decreased the thermal properties of the composites. The nanocomposites showed less thermal stability than the pristine polymer. The reduction in the onset temperature compared to that of neat HDPE was attributed to less adhesion between the fillers and the matrix. In addition, the crystallinity was reduced by the addition of fillers.
Cite this paper: Alateyah, A. (2019) High-Density Polyethylene Based on Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets/Nano-Magnesium Oxide: An Investigation of Thermal Properties and Morphology. Materials Sciences and Applications, 10, 159-169. doi: 10.4236/msa.2019.103013.
References

[1]   Noor Hasanah, T., Wijeyesekera, D.C., Lim, A. and Ismail, B. (2014) Recycled PP/HDPE Blends: A Thermal Degradation and Mechanical Properties Study. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 465, 932-936.

[2]   Alateyah, A.I., Dhakal, H.N. and Zhang, Z.Y. (2013) Processing, Properties, and Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Layer Silicates: A Review. Advances in Polymer Technology, 32.
https://doi.org/10.1002/adv.21368

[3]   Jiang, X. and Drzal, L.T. (2010) Multifunctional High Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites Produced by Incorporation of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets 1: Morphology and Mechanical Properties. Polymer Composites, 31, 1091-1098.

[4]   Pedrazzoli, D., Pegoretti, A. and Kalaitzidou, K. (2014) Synergistic Effect of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets and Short Glass Fiber on the Mechanical and Interfacial Properties of Epoxy Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 98, 15-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.04.019

[5]   Alam, S.N. and Kumar, L. (2016) Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Graphite Nanoplatelets. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 667, 16-32.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2016.04.054

[6]   Karevan, M., Eshraghi, S., Gerhardt, R., Das, S. and Kalaitzidou, K. (2013) Effect of Processing Method on the Properties of Multifunctional Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets/Polyamide 12 Composites. Carbon, 64, 122-131.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.043

[7]   Li, Y., Zhang, H., Porwal, H., Huang, Z., Bilotti, E. and Peijs, T. (2017) Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of In-Situ Exfoliated Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 95, 229-236.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.01.007

[8]   Wang, F., Drzal, L.T., Qin, Y. and Huang, Z. (2016) Enhancement of Fracture Toughness, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Rubber/Epoxy Composites by Incorporation of Graphene Nanoplatelets. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 87, 10-22.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.04.009

[9]   Rath, T. and Li, Y. (2011) Nanocomposites Based on Polystyrene-b-Poly(ethylene-r-butylene)-b-Polystyrene and Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplates: Effect of Nanoplatelet Loading on Morphology and Mechanical Properties. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42, 1995-2002.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.09.002

[10]   Chung, D. (2002) Review Graphite. Journal of Materials Science, 37, 1475-1489.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014915307738

[11]   Kalaitzidou, K., Fukushima, H. and Drzal, L.T. (2007) A New Compounding Method for Exfoliated Graphite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Enhanced Flexural Properties and Lower Percolation Threshold. Composites Science and Technology, 67, 2045-2051.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2006.11.014

[12]   Kim, S., Seo, J. and Drzal, L.T. (2010) Improvement of Electric Conductivity of LLDPE Based Nanocomposite by Paraffin Coating on Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 581-587.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.05.002

[13]   Mantilaka, M., Pitawala, H., Karunaratne, D. and Rajapakse, R. (2014) Nanocrystalline Magnesium Oxide from Dolomite via Poly (Acrylate) Stabilized Magnesium Hydroxide Colloids. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 443, 201-208.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.11.020

[14]   Abdizadeh, H., Ebrahimifard, R. and Baghchesara, M.A. (2014) Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano MgO Reinforced Al Composites Manufactured by Stir Casting and Powder Metallurgy Methods: A Comparative Study. Composites Part B: Engineering, 56, 217-221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.023

[15]   Bourbigot, S., Gilman, J.W. and Wilkie, C.A. (2004) Kinetic Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of Polystyrene-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 84, 483-492.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.01.006

[16]   Dabrowski, F., Bourbigot, S., Delobel, R. and Le Bras, M. (2000) Kinetic Modelling of the Thermal Degradation: of Polyamide-6 Nanocomposite. European Polymer Journal, 36, 273-284.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(99)00079-8

[17]   Holland, B. and Hay, J. (2001) The Thermal Degradation of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol). Polymer, 42, 6775-6783.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(01)00166-5

[18]   Blumstein, A. (1965) Polymerization of Adsorbed Monolayers. II. Thermal Degradation of the Inserted Polymer. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: General Papers, 3, 2665-2672.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1965.100030721

[19]   Shalwan, A., Alateyah, A., Aldousiri, B. and Alajmi, M. (2016) Thermal and Nanoindentation Behaviours of Layered Silicate Reinforced Recycled GF-12 Nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Science Research, 5, 10.
https://doi.org/10.5539/jmsr.v5n4p10

[20]   Alateyah, A. (2018) Thermal Properties and Morphology of Polypropylene Based on Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets/Nanomagnesium Oxide. Open Engineering, 8, 432-439.

[21]   Giannelis, E.P. (1996) Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites. Advanced Materials, 8, 29-35.
https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.19960080104

[22]   Chen, Y., Zhou, S., Yang, H. and Wu, L. (2005) Structure and Properties of Polyurethane/Nanosilica Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 95, 1032-1039.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.21180

[23]   Geng, Y., Wang, S.J. and Kim, J.-K. (2009) Preparation of Graphite Nanoplatelets and Graphene Sheets. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 336, 592-598.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2009.04.005

[24]   Song, P., Cao, Z., Cai, Y., Zhao, L., Fang, Z. and Fu, S. (2011) Fabrication of Exfoliated Graphene-Based Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Properties. Polymer, 52, 4001-4010.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2011.06.045

[25]   Mittal, G., Dhand, V., Rhee, K.Y., Park, S.-J. and Lee, W.R. (2015) A Review on Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Fillers in Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21, 11-25.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.03.022

[26]   Pavlidou, S. and Papaspyrides, C.D. (2008) A Review on Polymer-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites. Progress in Polymer Science, 33, 1119-1198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.07.008

[27]   Wegrzyn, M., Galindo, B., Benedito, A. and Gimenez, E. (2015) Morphology, Thermal, and Electrical Properties of Polypropylene Hybrid Composites Co-Filled with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoplatelets. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.42793

[28]   Alateyah, A.I., Dhakal, H.N. and Zhang, Z.Y. (2014) Water Absorption Behaviour, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based on Layered Silicate. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 53, 1-17.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03602559.2013.844246

 
 
Top