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 JBM  Vol.7 No.3 , March 2019
Biochemical and Molecular Effects of Phoenix dactylifera and Ziziphus spina-christi Extracts on Candida albicans
Abstract: Our overall knowledge of the medicinal uses of plants suggests that natural compounds could be useful in the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections in tropical regions. Furthermore, the possibilities of treatment using plant extracts may be even broader than is already known when one considers plants that have not been extensively studied in this context, such as the regional species Phoenix dactylifera and Ziziphus spina-christi. This study compared the antimicrobial activity of Phoenix dactylifera and Ziziphus spina-christi extracts in terms of their biochemical and molecular effects on Candida albicans (ATCC CA 10231). These effects included altered levels of intracellular sterols, changes in the permeability of the cell membrane, and changes in the TEF1: QRTTEF1, CaERG1: ERG1, CdERG12: CdERG1, and ERG25: ERG25 genes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify morphological characteristics, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analyses were conducted. In treated samples, the SEM and EDAX analyses showed cell cavities and shrinkage of the cell wall, and the number of cells was reduced to only a few abnormal cells as compared with that in the untreated samples. Yttrium was detected in the cells treated with Z. spina-christi, and high levels of osmium were detected in the cells treated with P. dactylifera. Compared with control cells, cells exposed to the concentration 150 μl/ml of Z. spina-christi extract had an average sterol concentration that was nearly 3 times higher, while the concentration was 5.5 times higher for cells treated with the 150 μl/ml of P. dactylifera extract. The ethanol extracts affected the permeability of C. albicans cell membrane. Gene sequencing showed gaps and mismatches in the ERG1, ERG12, and ERG25 genes after treatment with P. dactylifera and Z. spina-christi extracts compared with that in the controls. The results were highly significant (p ≤ 0.01). We conclude that the ethanol extracts of P. dactylifera and Z. spina-christi have antimicrobial activity through several mechanisms in the yeast cell.
Cite this paper: Al-Ali, S. and Al-Judaibi, A. (2019) Biochemical and Molecular Effects of Phoenix dactylifera and Ziziphus spina-christi Extracts on Candida albicans. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 29-43. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.73004.
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