Back
 JBM  Vol.7 No.3 , March 2019
Deep Venous Thrombosis: Commonly Affected Veins in the Lower Limbs
Abstract: Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to record the commonly affected veins in the lower limbs, to compare the affected sides and gender and to correlate the Doppler findings and stages of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Materials and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study of 46 already diagnosed cases of lower limb DVT. Results: Out of 46 cases of DVT, 71.74% were females. The majority of patients (93.47%) were affected in unilateral lower limb with significant predominance (65.22%) to affect the left lower limb (p < 0.001). The common femoral vein (CFV) was affected in 71.7% of cases. The superficial femoral vein (SFV) was affected in 71.7% of cases. The popliteal vein was affected in 67.4%. The deep femoral vein was affected only in 17.4%. Both CFV and SFV were affected together in 47.8% of cases. Both SFV and popliteal vein were affected together in 50% of cases. The majority of DVT cases (71.1%) were in the acute stage. This study revealed an essential relationship between the acute stage of DVT and distension of the affected veins (p < 0.001) (OR 20.667, 95% CI 3.826 - 111.633). It also detected a significant relationship between the acute stage and absence of venous blood flow (p < 0.001) (OR 90.667, 95% CI 8.303 - 990.114). Conclusion: Lower limb deep venous thrombosis affects left lower limb more than right and females more than males. Superficial femoral vein (SFV) and common femoral vein (CFV) are the most common affected veins. Lower limb DVT predominantly present in acute stage with venous distension and absent blood flow.
Cite this paper: Alshoabi, S. and Mothanna, A. (2019) Deep Venous Thrombosis: Commonly Affected Veins in the Lower Limbs. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 12-19. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.73002.
References

[1]   Min, S.-K., Kim, Y.H., Joh, J.H., Kang, J.M., Park, U.J., Kim, H.-K., et al. (2016) Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Korean Practice Guidelines. Vascular Specialist International, 32, 77-104.
https://doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2016.32.3.77

[2]   Brækkan, S.K., Grosse, S.D., Okoroh, E.M., Tsai, J., Cannegieter, S.C., Naess, I.A., et al. (2016) Venous Thromboembolism and Subsequent Permanent Work-Related Disability. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 14, 1978-1987.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.13411

[3]   Vincentelli, G.M., Timpone, S., Murdolo, G., Fusco Moffa, I., L’Angiocola, P.D., Borgognoni, F., et al. (2018) A New Risk Assessment Model for the Stratification of the Thromboembolism Risk in Medical Patients: The TEVere Score. Minerva Medica, 109, 436-442.
https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05689-6

[4]   Baker, M. and dela Cruz, J. (2018) Deep Venous Thrombosis, Ultrasound. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island, FL.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470453

[5]   Needleman, L., Cronan, J., Lilly, M., Merli, G.J., Adhikari, S., Hertzberg, B.S., et al. (2018) Ultrasound for Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: Multidisciplinary Recommendations from the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference. Circulation, 137, 1505-1515.
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030687

[6]   Zuker-Herman, R., Ayalon Dangur, I., Berant, R., Sitt, E.C., Baskin, L., Shaya, Y., et al. (2018) Comparison between Two-Point and Three-Point Compression Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 45, 99-105.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-017-1595-9

[7]   American College of Radiology (ACR), American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU) (2015) Practice Guideline for the Performance of Peripheral Venous Ultrasound Examinations. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 30, 143-150.

[8]   Kakale, S.B., Maaji, S.M. and Aliyu, S.A. (2016) Lower Extremities Duplex-Doppler Ultrasonography for the Detection of Suspected Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Preliminary Report from Sokoto. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 7, 53-57.
https://doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v7i6.14489

[9]   Chen, F., Xiong, J.X. and Zhou, W.M. (2015) Differences in Limb, Age and Sex of Chinese Deep Vein Thrombosis Patients. Phlebology, 30, 242-248.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0268355514524192

[10]   Shin, H.S. and Park, J.K. (2014) The Laterality of Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Pelvic and Lower Extremity Veins. Vascular Specialist International, 30, 56-61.
https://doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2014.30.2.56

[11]   Peters, M., Syed, R.K., Katz, M., Moscona, J., Press, C., Nijjar, V., et al. (2012) May-Thurner Syndrome: A Not So Uncommon Cause of a Common Condition. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 25, 231-233.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2012.11928834

[12]   Khaladkar, S.M., Thakkar, D.K., Shinde, K., Thakkar, D.K., Shrotri, H. and Kulkarni, V.M. (2014) Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Limbs: A Retrospective Analysis of Doppler Ultrasound Findings. Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, 7, 612-619.
https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-2870.140449

[13]   De Maeseneer, M.G.R., Bochanen, N., van Rooijen, G. and Neglén, P. (2016) Analysis of 1,338 Patients with Acute Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Supports the Inadequacy of the Term “Proximal DVT”. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery: The Official Journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery, 51, 415-420.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.11.001

[14]   Pomero, F., Brignone, C., Serraino, C., Panzone, S., Bracco, C., Migliore, E., et al. (2011) Venous Lower-Limb Evaluation in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Southern Medical Journal, 104, 405-411.
https://doi.org/10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318213d037

[15]   Hong, J., Lee, J.H., Yhim, H.-Y., Choi, W.-I., Bang, S.-M., Lee, H., et al. (2018) Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Korea from 2009 to 2013. PLoS ONE, 13, e0191897.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191897

[16]   Olowoyeye, O.A., Awosanya, G.O. and Soyebi, K.O. (2010) Duplex Ultrasonographic Findings in Patients with Suspected DVT. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 17, 128-132.

[17]   Karande, G.Y., Hedgire, S.S., Sanchez, Y., Baliyan, V., Mishra, V., Ganguli, S., et al. (2016) Advanced Imaging in Acute and Chronic Deep Vein Thrombosis. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 6, 493-507.
https://doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2016.12.06

[18]   Brandão, G.M., Sobreira, M.L., Malgor, R.D. and Rollo, H.A. (2014) Recanalization Rates after Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Single-Center Experience Using a Newly Proposed Vein Diameter Variation Index. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 28, 1751-1760.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2014.05.013

 
 
Top