AJIBM  Vol.9 No.2 , February 2019
Exploration of National Tourism Development, Innovation and Marketing Policies: A Case Study of Nepal Tourism Constraints
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to construct a sought-on tourism innovation & tourism marketing strategies which are essential tools for development of tourism industry for a particular tourism resource nation. This paper centrally focused on Nepalese tourism development constraints discourse by emphasizing the context of innovation and marketing. The data were derived from multiple sources such as: field observation, review of multiple public sectors tourism institution’s policy and plan documents, questionnaire opinion collected from domestic and international tourists and in-depth open-end interviews taken with influential tourism stakeholders. Even though there is not much that had been done to address the tourism innovativeness and marketing strategies from the academia and Government institutions in Nepal, this paper aimed to figure out the major pitfall and illustrate the suitable recommendation towards drafting the strategies and policies that can facilitate overall Nepalese tourism development. The subject is essential to ensure sustainable growth and to achieve the tourism national goal. Our study aimed to generalize the research gap by putting forward ITDM model which is the sum of idea generated from SOSTAC and Abernathy & Clark innovation model. ITDM was casted forward after analyzing and reviewing the applicability for Nepalese tourism development context. The highlighted finding of this research can conclude that: “There is collaboration dysfunctionality among key stakeholders, disintegration of common goals within key stake holders, failure of high-level tourism council functionality, inadequate budget line, un-contextual vision lead mission, lack of skilled manpower, poor tourism infrastructures, aviation infra scarcity, low degree of ICT readiness, un-updated national tourism policies, ignorance of triple helix correlation (GON, P.C, and Academia)”. These major constraints should be immediately addressed in order to achieve and yield tourism development national goal of Nepal.
Cite this paper: Kumar Batala, L. , Regmi, K. , Sharma, G. and Ullah, A. (2019) Exploration of National Tourism Development, Innovation and Marketing Policies: A Case Study of Nepal Tourism Constraints. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 9, 403-425. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.92027.

[1]   Batala, L.K., Regmi, K. and Sharma, G. (2017) Cross Border Co-Operation through Tourism Promotion & Cultural Exchange: A Case Study. Open Journal of Business and Management, 5, 105-118.

[2]   Gee, C.Y., Fayos-Sola, E., et al. (1997) International Tourism: A Global Perspective (E. F.-S. Chuck y. Gee, Ed.). World Tourism Organization, Madrid.

[3]   Hall, C.M. (1994) Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place. In: Hall, C.M., Ed., Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

[4]   Hall, M.C., Williams, A. and Williams, A. (2008) Tourism and Innovation (Michael C. Hall, Allan Williams, Eds.). Routledge, London.

[5]   Akama, J.S. (2002) The Role of Government in the Development of Tourism in Kenya. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4, 1-14.

[6]   Qin, Q., Wall, G. and Liu, X. (2011) Government Roles in Stimulating Tourism Development: A Case from Guangxi, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16, 471-487.

[7]   Carlisle, S., Kunc, M., Jones, E. and Tiffin, S. (2013) Supporting Innovation for Tourism Development through Multi-Stakeholder Approaches: Experiences from Africa. Tourism Management, 35, 59-69.

[8]   Weiermair, K. (2004) Product Improvement or Innovation: What Is the Key to Success in Tourism?

[9]   Genç, R. and Genç, E.A. (2017) Market-Oriented Innovations in Tourism. Research in Hospitality Management, 7, 51-57.

[10]   Korres, G.M. (2008) The Role of Innovation Activities in Tourism and Regional Growth in Europe. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 3, 135-152.

[11]   Sandybayev, A. (2016) Strategic Innovation in Tourism. A Conceptual and Review Approach. International Journal of Research in Tourism and Hospitality (IJRTH), 2, 5-10.

[12]   Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation of Nepal (2016) National Tourism Strategic Plan of Nepal 2016-2025. Kathmandu.

[13]   Martínez, R.M., Galván, M.O. and Lafuente, A.M.G. (2014) Public Policies and Tourism Marketing. An Analysis of the Competitiveness on Tourism in Morelia, Mexico and Alcala de Henares, Spain. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 146-152.

[14]   Velasco González, M. (2005) Does Tourism Policy Exist? Government Action in the Field of Tourism in Spain (1951-2004). Política y Sociedad, 42, 169-195.

[15]   Kottler, P., et al. (2011) Marketing Turístico (Alberto Cañizal and María Varela, Ed.). 5th Edition, Pearson, London and New York.

[16]   Linda, K.R. (1989) The Politics of Tourism in Asia. Vol. 1, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

[17]   Elliott, J. (1997) Tourism: Politics and Public Sector Management. Routledge, Abingdon-on-Thames.

[18]   UNWTO (2017) UNWTO World Tourism Barometer January 2017 Excerpt. World Tourism Organization UNWTO (Vol. 13).

[19]   Mei, X.Y., Arcodia, C. and Ruhanen, L. (2012) Towards Tourism Innovation: A Critical Review of Public Polices at the National Level. Tourism Management Perspectives, 4, 92-105.

[20]   Tang, X. (2017) The Historical Evolution of China’s Tourism Development Policies (1949-2013): A Quantitative Research Approach. Tourism Management, 58, 259-269.

[21]   Islam, N. (2012) Tourism Marketing in Developing Countries: A Study of Bangladesh. University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

[22]   Alejziak, W. (2014) National and International Tourism Policy in the Face of 21st Century Challenges. Scientific Journal of Economic Problems of Tourism, 4, 86-100.

[23]   Nepal Investment Board (2016) Investment Guide 2016. Vol. 44, Kathmandu Nepal.

[24]   Heller, V.L. (1996) Designing a Tourism Marketing Assessment for San Antonio, Texas. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2, 163-175.

[25]   Louis Turner, J.A. (1975) The Golden Hordes: International Tourism and the Pleasure Periphery. Constable, London.

[26]   Song, H. and Jiang, W.Y. (2015) Implementation Mechanism and Paths Selection of Government’s Tourism Marketing: An Exploratory Research Based on Grounded Theory. Tourism Tribune, 30, 22-31.

[27]   Middleton, V.T.C., Fyall, A. and Morgan, M. (2010) Marketing in Travel and Tourism 4th Edition. Annals of Tourism Research, 37, 280-281.

[28]   Eshuis, J., Braun, E. and Klijn, E.H. (2013) Place Marketing as Governance Strategy: An Assessment of Obstacles in Place Marketing and Their Effects on Attracting Target Groups. Public Administration Review, 73, 507-516.

[29]   Hawkins, D.E., Leventhal, M. and Oden, W.L. (1996) The Virtual Tourism Environment. Utilisation of Information Technology to Enhance Strategic Travel Marketing. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2, 223-238.

[30]   Phan, P.H. (2004) Entrepreneurship Theory: Possibilities and Future Directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 617-620.

[31]   Schumpeter, J.A. (2006) Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical, and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process. Martino Pub.

[32]   Thompson, V.A. (1965) Bureaucracy and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, 1.

[33]   Gopalakrishnan, S. and Damanpour, F. (1997) A Review of Innovation Research in Economics, Sociology and Technology Management. Omega, 25, 15-28.

[34]   Carvalho, L. and Costa, T. (2011) Tourism Innovation—A Literature Review Complemented by Case Study Research. International Conference on Tourism and Management Studies, Algarve, 26-29 October 2011, Vol. 1, 23-33.

[35]   Löfgren, O. (1999) On Holiday a History of Vacationing California Studies in Critical Human Geography. University of California Press, Los Angels, London.

[36]   World Travel & Tourism Council (2017) Coping with Success: Managing Overcrowding in Tourism Destinations.

[37]   Mei, X.Y., Arcodia, C. and Ruhanen, L. (2013) Innovation and Collaboration: The Role of the National Government in Norway. Tourism Analysis, 18, 519-531.

[38]   Divisekera, S. and Nguyen, V.K. (2018) Determinants of Innovation in Tourism Evidence from Australia. Tourism Management, 67, 157-167.

[39]   Paul, R. and Smith, Z.Z. (2011) Marketing Communications Integrating Offline and Online with Social Media. 5th Edition, Kogan Page Publishers, London, Philadephia, New Delhi.

[40]   Kozak, M.W. (2017) Innovations in Tourism Policy: The Case of Poland. Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 8, 160-177.

[41]   Hjalager, A. (2002) Repairing Innovative Defectiveness in Tourism. Tourism Management, 23, 465-474.

[42]   Abernathy, W.J. and Clark, K.B. (1985) Innovation: Mapping the Winds of Creative Destruction. Research Policy, 14, 3-22.

[43]   Rodríguez, I., Williams, A.M. and Hall, C.M. (2014) Tourism Innovation Policy: Implementation and Outcomes. Annals of Tourism Research, 49, 76-93.

[44]   Stamboulis, Y. and Skayannis, P. (2003) Innovation Strategies and Technology for Experience-Based Tourism. Tourism Management, 24, 35-43.

[45]   Eli Avraham, E.K. (2016) Tourism Marketing for Developing Countries. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

[46]   OECD and Eurostat (2005) The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Oslo Manual Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. Third Edition, OECD and Eurostat, Oslo.

[47]   UNWTO and OAS (2018) Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals Good Practices in the Americas. Madrid.

[48]   Khadaroo, J. and Seetanah, B. (2008) The Role of Transport Infrastructure in International Tourism Development: A Gravity Model Approach. Tourism Management, 29, 831-840.

[49]   Litvin, S.W., Goldsmith, R.E. and Pan, B. (2008) Electronic Word-of-Mouth in Hospitality and Tourism Management. Tourism Management, 29, 458-468.