JACEN  Vol.8 No.1 , February 2019
The Nature, Sources, Detections and Regulations of Mycotoxins That Contaminate Foods and Feeds Causing Health Hazards for Both Human and Animals
Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus kingdom. Fungi (molds) under aerobic and optimum conditions of humidity and temperature consume nutrients for proliferation and mycotoxin production (secretion). There are seven major groups of mycotoxins produced by different species of toxigenic fungal genus. Mycotoxins production from these toxigenic fungi depends on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic environments. These seven mycotoxins groups that contaminate grains, foods and animal feeds are: Aflatoxins, Trichothecene, Ochratoxins, Ergot alkaloid (Ergolin), Fumonisins, Patulin, and Zearalenone. These mycotoxins are capable of causing health hazards and death for both human and animals by effecting mammalian cells, causing a number of problems in normal cell function and a wide variety of clinical symptoms of diseases. These mycotoxins are varied in their toxicity depending on the infected host (human or animal) and the host susceptibility (immunity). The major concern of food and feed industries is the contamination of food products and animal feed supplies by these mycotoxins. Worldwide Health Organization (WHO), and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are responsible to regulate the acceptable (tolerable) levels of these mycotoxins in grains, food and feed supplies to ensure the safety and health for both human and animals. Understanding fungal ecology and factors that affect fungal proliferation and mycotoxins production by these toxigenic fungi in agriculture crops as raw materials for both human food and animal feed products, plus understanding the chemistry and property of these mycotoxins, methods of detection, illness symptoms, and comply with regulatory guidance established by World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are key factors to prevent or minimize foods/feeds contamination and the toxicity of these mycotoxins for both human and animals health, plus reducing economical loss.
Cite this paper: Ibrahim, O. and Menkovska, M. (2019) The Nature, Sources, Detections and Regulations of Mycotoxins That Contaminate Foods and Feeds Causing Health Hazards for Both Human and Animals. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 8, 33-57. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2019.81004.

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