Health  Vol.3 No.12 , December 2011
The influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training
Abstract: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and regulates the metabolism of lipid and glucose. We examined the influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total or high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training. A randomized parallel-design study (n = 53; 40 women and 13 men; age range, 32 - 65 years) was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n = 26) or control (n = 27) group and received exercise training for 70 min 2 times per week for 12 weeks and exercise advice at the baseline, respectively. Blood sample were obtained before and after the intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels. At the baseline, the participants with and without 276G allele did not differ with the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in the entire study population. No significant difference in the change in the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels between the subjects with the G276G genotype and 276T allele carriers were found. This study provides evidence that the G276T polymorphism of the adiponectin gene is not associated with the magnitude of the effect of twice-weekly exercise training on the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels.
Cite this paper: nullAndo, D. , Hosaka, Y. , Suzuki, K. and Yamagata, Z. (2011) The influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training. Health, 3, 737-741. doi: 10.4236/health.2011.312122.

[1]   Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Waki, H., Terauchi, Y., Kubota, N., Hara, K., Mori, Y., Ide, T., Murakami, K., Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N., Ezaki, O., Akanuma, Y., Gavrilova, O., Vinson, C., Reitman, M.L., Kagechika, H., Shudo, K., Yoda, M., Nakano, Y., Tobe, K., Nagai, R., Kimura, S., Tomita, M., Froguel, P. and Kadowaki, T. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nature Medicine, 7, 941-946. doi:10.1038/90984

[2]   Yamamoto, Y., Hirose, H., Saito, I., Nishikai, K. and Saruta, T. (2004) Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, predicts future insulin resistance: Two-year follow-up study in Japanese population. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89, 87-90. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031163

[3]   Arita, Y., Kihara, S., Ouchi, N., Takahashi, M., Maeda, K., Miyagawa, J., Hotta, K., Shimomura, I., Nakamura, T., Miyaoka, K., Kuriyama, H., Nishida, M., Yamashita, S., Okubo, K., Matsubara, K., Muraguchi, M., Ohmoto, Y., Funahashi, T. and Matsuzawa, Y. (1999) Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 257, 79-83. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0255

[4]   Saltiel, A.R. and Kahn, C.R. (2001) Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature, 414, 799-806. doi:10.1038/414799a

[5]   Lindsay, R.S., Funahashi, T., Hanson, R.L., Matsuzawa, Y., Tanaka, S., Tataranni, P.A., Knowler, W.C. and Krakoff, J. (2002) Adiponectin and development of type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. Lancet, 360, 57- 58. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09335-2

[6]   Schulze, M.B., Shai, I., Rimm, E.B., Li, T., Rifai, N. and Hu, F.B. (2005) Adiponectin and future coronary heart disease events among men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 54, 534-539. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.2.534

[7]   Hawley, J.A. and Houmard, J.A. (2004) Introduction-preventing insulin resistance through exercise: A cellular approach. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36, 1187-1190. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000132382.95142.71

[8]   Bray, M.S., Hagberg, J.M., Pérusse, L., Rankinen, T., Roth, S.M., Wolfarth, B. and Bouchard, C. (2009) The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: The 2006-2007 update. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41, 35-73. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181844179

[9]   Hand, B.D., Kostek, M.C., Ferrell, R.E., Delmonico, M.J., Douglass, L.W., Roth, S.M., Hagberg, J.M. and Hurley, B.F. (2007) Influence of promoter region variants of insulin-like growth factor pathway genes on the strength-training response of muscle phenotypes in older adults. Journal of Applied Physiology, 103, 1678-1687. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00420.2007

[10]   Teran-Garcia, M., Rankinen, T., Rice, T., Leon, A.S., Rao, D.C., Skinner, J.S. and Bouchard, C. (2007) Variations in the four and a half LIM domains 1 gene (FHL1) are associated with fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity responses to regular exercise. Diabetologia, 50, 1858-1866. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0733-x

[11]   Hara, K., Boutin, P., Mori, Y., Tobe, K., Dina, C., Yasuda, K., Yamauchi, T., Otabe, S., Okada, T., Eto, K., Kadowaki H., Hagura, R., Akanuma, Y., Yazaki, Y., Nagai, R., Taniyama, M., Matsubara, K., Yoda, M., Nakano, Y., Tomita, M., Kimura, S., Ito, C., Froguel, P. and Kadowaki, T. (2002) Genetic variation in the gene encoding adiponectin is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. Diabetes, 51, 536- 540. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.2.536

[12]   Qi, L., Li, T., Rimm, E., Zhang, C., Rifai, N., Hunter, D., Doria, A. and Hu, F.B. (2005) The +276 polymorphism of the APM1 gene, plasma adiponectin concentration, and cardiovascular risk in diabetic men. Diabetes, 54, 1607-1610. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.5.1607

[13]   Huang, H., TadaIida, K., Murakami, H., Saito, Y., Otsuki, T., Iemitsu, M., Maeda, S., Sone, H., Kuno, S. and Ajisaka, R. (2007) Influence of adiponectin gene polymerphism SNP276 (G/T) on adiponectin in response to exercise training. Endocrine Journal, 54, 879-886. doi:10.1507/endocrj.K06-146

[14]   Kadowaki, T. and Yamauchi, T. (2005) Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. Endocrine Reviews, 26, 439-451. doi: 10.1210/er.2005-0005

[15]   Matsuzawa, Y. (2006) The metabolic syndrome and adipocytokines. FEBS Letters, 580, 2917-2921. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2006.04.028

[16]   Nakano, Y., Tajima, S., Yoshimi, A., Akiyama, H., Tsushima, M., Tanioka, T., Negoro, T., Tomita, M. and Tobe, T. (2006) A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for high-molecular-weight adiponectin. The Journal of Lipid Research, 47, 1572-1582. doi:10.1194/jlr.D600010-JLR200

[17]   Xita, N., Georgiou, I., Chatzikyriakidou, A., Vounatsou, M., Papassotiriou, G.P., Papassotiriou, I. and Tsatsoulis, A. (2005) Effect of adiponectin gene polymorphisms on circulating adiponectin and insulin resistance indexes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Chemistry, 51, 416-423. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.043109

[18]   Mousavinasab, F., Tahtinen, T., Jokelainen, J., Koskela, P., Vanhala, M., Oikarinen, J., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. and Laakso, M. (2005) Effect of the Pro12Ala polymerphism of the PPAR2 gene on serum adiponectin changes. Endocrine, 27, 307-309. doi:10.1385/ENDO:27:3:307

[19]   Shin, M.J., Jang, Y., Koh, S.J., Chae, J.S., Kim, O.Y., Lee, J.E., Ordovas, J.M. and Lee, J.H. (2006) The association of SNP276G > T at adiponectin gene with circulating adiponectin and insulin resistance in response to mild weight loss. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1702-1708. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803338

[20]   Chung, H.K., Chae, J.S., Hyun, Y.J., Paik, J.K., Kim, J.Y., Jang, Y., Kwon, H.M., Song, Y.D., Lee, H.C. and Lee, J.H. (2009) Influence of adiponectin gene polymorphisms on adiponectin level and insulin resistance index in response to dietary intervention in overweight-obese patients with impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32, 552-558. doi:10.2337/dc08-1605

[21]   Fisher, F.F., Trujillo, M.E., Hanif, W., Barnett, A.H., McTernan, P.G., Scherer, P.E. and Kumar, S. (2005) Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males. Diabetologia, 48, 1084- 1087. doi:10.1007/s00125-005-1758-7

[22]   Pajvani, U.B., Hawkins, M., Combs, T.P., Rajala, M.W., Doebber, T., Berger, J.P., Wagner, J.A., Wu, M., Knopps, A., Xiang, A.H., Utzschneider, K.M., Kahn, S.E., Olefsky, J.M., Buchanan, T.A. and Scherer, P.E. (2004) Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279, 12152-12162. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311113200

[23]   Wallace, M.B., Mikks, B.D. and Browning, C.L. (2001) Effects of cross-training on markers of insulin resintance/ hyperinsulinemia. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exer- cise, 29, 1170-1175. doi:10.1097/00005768-199709000-00008

[24]   Menzaghi, C., Trischitta, V. and Doria, A. (2007) Genetic influences of adiponectin on insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes, 56, 1198-1209. doi:10.2337/db06-0506

[25]   Qi, L., Kang, K., Zhang, C., van Dam, R.M., Kraft, P., Hunter, D., Lee, C.H. and Hu, F.B. (2008) Fat mass-and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant is associated with obesity: Longitudinal analyses in two cohort studies and functional test. Diabetes, 57, 3145-3151. doi:10.2337/db08-0006