AJAC  Vol.2 No.8 , December 2011
Extraction, Identification and Antioxidative Properties of the Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves and Flowers of Cassia angustifolia
Abstract: Flavonoids identification, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the extracts from the leaves as well as flowers of Cassia angustifolia were determined. Five different extraction techniques were used for the extraction of flavonoids from leaves and flowers. Total flavonoid contents (TFC) in the extracts were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Individual flavonoids were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ioniza- tion tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS). It has been examined that aqueous ethanol (70%) fractions of C. angustifolia flowers and leaves are highly rich in flavonoids and microwave extraction is the best method for the extraction of individual flavanoid constituents (1 - 9) as well as total flavonoid contents. It was also found that compound 8 was absent in the leaves and compounds 2 and 5 could not be identified. The extracts of C. angustifolia flowers and leaves show strong antioxidant activity.
Cite this paper: nullA. Laghari, S. Memon, A. Nelofar and A. Laghari, "Extraction, Identification and Antioxidative Properties of the Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves and Flowers of Cassia angustifolia," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 871-878. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.28100.

[1]   S. Hamamatsu, K. Yabe and Y. Nawa, “Compositions of Anthocyanin and Other Flavonoids in Cultured Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade cv. Tiiblue),” Food Science and Technology Research, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2004, pp. 239-246. doi:10.3136/fstr.10.239

[2]   M. D. R. Santos, A. P. Vitor, J. C. Carneiro, D. S. C. Paciullo, R. C. Matos and M. A. C. Matos, “Use of Ul- trasound Bath in the Extraction and Quantification of Es- ter-Linked Phenolic Acids in Tropical Forages,” Ameri- can Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 344-351. doi:10.4236/ajac.2011.23042

[3]   L. S. Chua, N. A. Latiff, S. Y. Lee, C. T. Lee, M. R. Sar- midi and R. A. Aziz, “Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 127, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1186-1192. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.122

[4]   A. H. Laghari, S. Memon, A. Nelofar, K. M. Khan, A. Yasmin, M. N. Syed and A. Aman, “A New Flavanenol with Urease-Inhibition Activity Isolated from Roots of Manna Plant Camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum),” Journal of Molecular Structure, Vol. 965, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 65-67. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2009.11.039

[5]   E. J. Middleton, “Effect of Plant Flavonoids on Immune and Inflammatory Cell Function,” Advances in Experi- mental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 439, 1998, pp. 175-182. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5335-9_13

[6]   T. P. Tim Cushnie and A. J. Lamb, “Antimicrobial Ac- tiveity of Flavonoids,” International Journal of Antim- icrobial Agents, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005, pp. 343-356. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002

[7]   F. Shahidi and P. K. Wanasundara, “Phenolic Antioxi- dants,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1992, pp. 67-103. doi:10.1080/10408399209527581

[8]   H. Wei, L. Tye, E. Bresnick and D. F. Birt, “Inhibitory Effect of Epigenin, a Plant Flavonoid, on Epidermal Or- nithine Decarboxylase and Skin Tumor Promotion in Mice,” Cancer Research, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1990, pp. 499- 502.

[9]   Y. Yamamoto and R. B. Gaynor, “Therapeutic Potential of Inhibition of the NFkB Pathway in the Treatment of Inflammation and Cancer,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 107, No. 2, 2001, pp. 135-142. doi:10.1007/s10457-010-9316-9

[10]   Q. P. Wu, Z. J. Wang, L. Y. Tang, M. H. Fu and Y. He, “A New Flavonoid Glucoside from Cassia angustifolia,” Chinese Chemical Letters, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009, pp. 320- 321. doi:10.1016/j.cclet.2008.12.003

[11]   S. Hayashi, A. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, Y. Mitani and K. Yoshizawa, “Analytical Studies on the Active Consti- tuents in Crude Drugs. IV. Determination of Sennosides in Senna and Formulations by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1980, pp. 406-412.

[12]   I. Siddique, M. Anis and I. M. Aref, “In Vitro Adventitious Shoot Regeneration via Indirect Organogenesis from Petiole Explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.―A Potential Medicinal Plant,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 162, No. 7, 2010, pp. 2067-2074. doi:10.1007/s12010-010-8982-4

[13]   S. Parveen and A. Shahzad, “A Micropropagation Proto- col for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. from Root Explants,” Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2011, pp. 789-796. doi:10.1007/s11738-010-0603-x

[14]   C. R. Silva, M. R. Monteiro, H. M. Rocha, A. F. Ribeiro, A. Caldeira-de-Araujo, A. C. Leit?o, R. J. A. C. Bezerra and M. Pádula, “Assessment of Antimutagenic and Geno- toxic Potential of Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) Aqueous Extract Using in Vitro Assays,” Toxicol in Vitro, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2008, pp. 212-218. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2007.07.008

[15]   I. Siddique and M. Anis, “In Vitro Shoot Multiplication and Plantlet Regeneration from Nodal Explants of Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.): A Medicinal Plant,” Acta Physiolo- giae Plantarum, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2007, pp. 233-238. doi:10.1007/s11738-007-0029-2

[16]   R. Arya, “Yield of Cassia angustifolia in Combination with Different Tree Species in a Silvi-Herbal Trial under Hot Arid Conditions in India,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2003, pp. 165-169. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00150-5

[17]   H. Zhu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Xia and T. Tang, “Analysis of Flavonoids in Portulaca oleracea L. by UV-Vis Spec- trophotometry with Comparative Study on Different Ex- traction Technologies,” Food Analytical Methods, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010, pp. 90-97. doi:10.1007/s12161-009-9091-2

[18]   J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. Park, H. K. Kim, W. Y. Jeong, J. Y. Choi, N.-J. Sung, W. S. Lee, C.-S. Lim, G.-S. Kim and S. C. Shin, “Characterisation of Flavonoids in Orostachys japonicus A. Berger Using HPLC-MS/MS: Contribution to the Overall Antioxidant Effect,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 124, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1627-1633. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.031

[19]   B. Sritularak, K. Likhitwitayawuid, J. Conrad and W. Kraus, “Flavonoids from the Roots of Millettia Eryth- rocalyx,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 61, No. 8, 2002, pp. 943- 947. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00337-0

[20]   W. Bylka, M. Stobiecki and R. Frański, “Sulphated Fla- vonoid Glycosides from Leaves of Atriplex hortensis,” Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2001, pp. 285-290. doi:10.1007/s11738-001-0035-8

[21]   H.-D. Yoo, S. O. Ketchum, D. France, K. Bair and W. H. Gerwick, “Vidalenolone, a Novel Phenolic Metabolite from the Tropical Red Alga Vidalia sp,” Journal of Na- tural Products, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2002, pp. 51-53. doi:10.1021/np010319c

[22]   P.-L. Ding, A.-J. Hou and D.-F. Chen, “Three New Iso- prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Sophora flaves- cens,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2005, pp. 237-243. doi:10.1080/10286020410001687554

[23]   M. A. Ponce, M. J. Bompadre, J. M. Scervino, J. A. Ocampo, E. J. Chaneton and A. M. Godeas, “Flavonoids, Benzoic Acids and Cinnamic Acids Isolated from Shoots and Roots of Italian Rye Grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) with and without Endophyte Association and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecol- ogy, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2009, pp. 245-253. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.03.010

[24]   S. Cao, M. S. Butler and A. D. Buss, “Flavonoids from Artocarpus Lanceifolius,” Natural Product Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2002, pp. 79-81. doi:10.1080/1478641031000103641

[25]   L. Yu, M. Zhao, J. Wang, C. Cui, B. Yang, Y. Jiang and Q. Zhao, “Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory and Anti- Breast Cancer Activities of Phenolic Extract from Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) Bark,” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2008, pp. 122-128. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2007.06.006

[26]   A. H. Laghari, S. Memon, A. Nelofar, K. M. Khan and A. Yasmin, “Determination of Free Phenolic Acids and Anti-Oxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts Obtained from Fruits and Leaves of Chenopodium album,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 126, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1850-1855. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.165