OJD  Vol.8 No.1 , February 2019
Symptoms of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Epilepsy in Burkina Faso
Abstract: Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its factors associated in patients with epilepsy at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Teaching Hospital (Burkina Faso). Methods: This was a prospective 6-month study carried out in Neurology Department from February to July 2017. This study included all the patients with epilepsy aged over 18 years. Sampling was non-random with systematic recruitment. The informed consent of the patient was required. All included patients were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Gererd questionnaire. The analysis of the data was performed by the software Epi Info version 7. Results: One hundred two patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 41.47 ± 16.67 years were included. The symptoms of depression were present in 67.3% of patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 42.59 ± 17 years, and 78 years (19 - 88 years). Depression was mild in 35%, moderate in 34% and severe in 31%. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was respectively 57.6% in male patients and 79% in female gender. The mean score of HDRS for depression was 15.62 ± 4.26. Hypochondriasis (97%), work and interest (95.5%) and anxiety-somatic (94.1%) were the most symptoms of HDRS-17. Higher scores were found for work and interests, anxiety-psychic and hypochondriasis. There was a significant association between perceived stigma, female gender, seizure frequency and presence of depression among patients with epilepsy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study had found a high prevalence of depression among patients with epilepsy. High perceived stigma, female gender and seizure frequency were the most associated factors with depressive symptoms.
Cite this paper: Dabilgou, A. , Nanema, D. , Dravé, A. , Sawadogo, S. , Kyelem, J. , Napon, C. and Kaboré, J. (2019) Symptoms of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Epilepsy in Burkina Faso. Open Journal of Depression, 8, 29-40. doi: 10.4236/ojd.2019.81004.

[1]   Adewuya, A. O., & Ola, B. A. (2005). Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anxiety and depressive Disorders in Nigerian Adolescents with Epilepsy. Epilepsy Behavior, 6, 342-347.

[2]   Andrijic, N. L., Alajbegovic, A., Zec, S. L., & Loga, S. (2014). Suicidal Ideation and Thoughts of Death in Epilepsy Patients. Psychiatria Danubina, 26, 52-55.

[3]   Asadi-Pooya, A., & Sperling, M. R. (2011). Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Epilepsy, with or without Other Chronic Disorders. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 13, 112-116.

[4]   Barry, J. J. (2003). The Recognition and Management of Mood Disorders as a Comorbidity of Epilepsy. Epilespia, 44, 30-40.

[5]   Barry, J.J., Ettinger, A. B., Friel, P. et al. (2008). Consensus Statement: The Evaluation and Treatment of People with Epilepsy and Affective Disorders. Epilepsy & Behavior, 13, S1-S29.

[6]   Biffu, B. B., Dachew, B. A., Tiruneh, B. T., & Tebeje, N. B. (2015). Depression among People with Epilepsy in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study. BMC Research Notes, 8, 585.

[7]   Debouverie, M., Kaboré, J., & Dumas, M. (1993). Epidémiologie de l’épilepsie au Burkina Faso à propos d’une enquête en milieu rural. Neurologie tropicale. In AUPELF-UREF (Ed.), (pp. 57-61). Paris: John Eurotext.

[8]   Espinosa, A. G., Machado, R. A., González, S. B. et al. (2010). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance and Impulsivity in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Suicidal Risk and Suicide Attempts. Epilepsy & Behavior, 17, 39-45.

[9]   Gaitatzis, A., Trimple, M. R., & Sander, J. W. (2004). The Psychiatric Comorbidity of Epilepsy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 110, 207-220.

[10]   Girerd, X., Radauceanu, A., Achard, J. M. et al. (2011). Evaluation de l’observance par l’interrogatoire au cours du suivi des hypertendus dans des consultations spécialisées. Archives des Maladies du Cœur et des Vaisseaux, 94, 839-842.

[11]   Haile, K., Awoke, T., Ayano, G., Tareke, M., Abate, A., & Nega, M. (2018). Suicide Ideation and Attempts among People with Epilepsy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Annals of General Psychiatry, 17, 4.

[12]   Hamed, S. A., Elserogy, Y. B., Abdou, M. A., & Abdellah, M. M. (2012a). Risks of Suicidality in Adult Patients with Epilepsy. World Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 33-42.

[13]   Hamed, S. A., Metwaly, N. A. H., Hassan, M. M. et al. (2012b). Depression in Adults with Epilepsy: Relationship to Psychobiological Variables. World Journal of Neurology, 2, 1-10.

[14]   Hamilton, M. (1960). A Rating Scale for Depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56-62,

[15]   Hecimovic, H., Santos, J. M., Carter, J. et al. (2012). Depression but Not Seizure Factors or Quality of Life Predicts Suicidality in Epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 24, 426-429.

[16]   Jones, J. E., Hermann, B. P., Barry, J. J. et al. (2003). Rates and Risk Factors for Suicide, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempts in Chronic Epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4, S31-S38.

[17]   Jones, J. E., Hermann, B. P., Barry, J. J. et al. (2005). Clinical Assessment of Axis I Psychiatric Morbidity in Chronic Epilepsy: A Multicenter Investigation. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 172-179.

[18]   Kanner, A. M. (2003). Depression in Epilepsy: Prevalence, Clinical Semiology, Pathogenic Mechanisms, and Treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 388-398.

[19]   Kanner, A. M. (2006). Depression and Epilepsy: A New Perspective on Two Closely Related Disorders. Epilepsy Currents, 6, 141-146.

[20]   Kanner, A. M., & Balabanov, A. (2002). Depression and Epilepsy: How Closely Related Are They? Neurology, 58, 27-39.

[21]   Kutlu, A., Başaran, Ş., & Altun, N. S., & ünalan, H. (2010). Quality of Life, Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Epilepsy: Controlled Study with Short Form 36 Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Neurosurgery Quarterly, 20, 95-99.

[22]   Lee, S.-A., Lee, S.-M., & No, Y.-O. (2010). Factors Contributing to Depression in Patients with Epilepsy. Epilepsia, 51, 1305-1308.

[23]   Miller, J. M., Kustra, R. P., Vuong, A., Hammer, A. E., & Messenheimer, J. A. (2008). Depressive Symptoms in Epilepsy: Prevalence, Impact, Aetiology, Biological Correlates and Effect of Treatment with Antiepileptic Drugs. Drugs, 68, 1493-1509.

[24]   Mula, M., & Schmitz, B. (2009). Depression in Epilepsy: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approach. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, 2, 337-344.

[25]   Nidhinandana, S., Chinvarun, Y., & Sithinamsuwan, P. et al. (2007). Prevalence of Depression among Epileptic Patients at Phramongkutklao Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 90, 32-36.

[26]   Ogunrin, O. A., & Obiabo, Y. O. (2010). Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Epilepsy: Analysis of Self-Rating and Physician’s Assessment. Neurology India, 58, 565-570.

[27]   Onwuekwe, I. O., Ekenze, O. S., Bzeala-Adikaibe, O. S., & Ejekwu, J. U. (2012). Depression in Patients with Epilepsy: A Study from Enugu, South East Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research, 2, 10-13.

[28]   Owolabi, S. D., Owolabi, L. F., Udofia, O., & Sale , S. (2016). Depression in Patients with Epilepsy in Northwestern Nigeria: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates. Annals of African Medicine, 15, 179.

[29]   Pandian, G. B., & Mohan, A. (2015). Study on Prevalence of Depression and Adverse Drug Reactions among South Indian Epileptic Patients. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 8, 73-76.

[30]   Salzberg, M. R., & Vajda, F. J. (2001). Epilepsy, Depression and Antidepressant Drugs. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 8, 209-215.

[31]   Scheffer, I. E., Berkovic, S., Capovilla, G. et al. (2017). Classification of the Epilepsies; Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia, 58, 512-521.

[32]   Tellez-Zenteno, J. F., Patten, S. B., Jetté, N., Williams, J., & Wiebe, S. (2007). Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy: A Population-Based Analysis. Epilepsia, 48, 2336-2344.

[33]   Thomsonand, E., & Brennenstuhl, S. (2009). The Association between Depression and Epilepsy in a Nationally Representative Sample. Epilepsia, 50, 1051-1058.

[34]   Titlic, M., Basic, S., Hajnsek, S., & Lusic, I. (2009). Comorbidity Psychiatric Disorders in Epilepsy: A Review of Literature. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy, 110, 105-109.

[35]   Tsegabrhan, H., Negash, A., & Tesfay, K. (2014). Co-Morbidity of Depression and Epilepsy in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Neurology India, 62, 649.

[36]   World Health Organization (2004). Epilepsy in the WHO African Region. Hoofdorp: Bridging the Gap, Paswerk Bedrijven.

[37]   Yousafzai, A. R., Yousafzai, A. W., & Taj, R. (2009). Frequency of Depression in Epilepsy: A Hospital Based Study. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 21, 73-75.

[38]   Zahiroddin, A. R., Shafiee Kandjani, A. R., & Ghoreishi, F. (2008). Depression Rate among 18-40-Year-Old Patients Suffering from Generalized Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy Referred to Neurology Clinics in an Iranian Hospital. Neurosciences (Riyadh), 13, 86-87.