OJBIPHY  Vol.9 No.1 , January 2019
Age-Dependent Comparative Study of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF Exposure on Heart Muscle Tissue Hydration of Rats
Abstract: Previously we have shown that 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF exposures have depressing effect on the thermodynamic activity of water, which decreases peroxide formation. It has also been shown that 4 Hz EMF-treated physiological solution modulates the growth and development of microbes and heart muscle contractility, but 8 Hz EMF has pronounced inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and development. Therefore, in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF effects on heart muscle function, in the present work the effects of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF exposures on heart muscle tissue hydration, the sensitivity of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF-induced tissue hydration to 10−4 M ouabain (Na+/K+ pump inhibition) and 10−9 M ouabain (activation of intracellular signaling system) as well as the effects of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF exposures on the number of Na+/K+ pump units in the membrane of both young and old rats have been studied. The obtained data allow us to suggest that 8 Hz EMF exposure has more pronounced age-dependent modulation effect on tissue hydration of heart muscle than 4 Hz EMF and this effect is sensitive to Na+/K+ pump activity and intracellular signaling system.
Cite this paper: Narinyan, L. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2019) Age-Dependent Comparative Study of 4 Hz and 8 Hz EMF Exposure on Heart Muscle Tissue Hydration of Rats. Open Journal of Biophysics, 9, 70-82. doi: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2019.91005.

[1]   Elmas, O. (2016) Effects of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Heart: A Systematic Review. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 32, 76-82.

[2]   Johansen, C. (2004) Electromagnetic Field and Health Effects—Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer, Diseases of the Central Nervous System, and Arrhythmia-Related Heart Diseases. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 30, 1-30.

[3]   Ayrapetyan, G., Papanyan, A., Hayrapetyan, H. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2005) Metabolic Pathway of Magnetized Fluid-Induced Relaxation Effects on Heart Muscle. Bioelectromagnetics, 26, 624-630.

[4]   Zhou, L., Wan, B., Liu, X., et al. (2016) The Effects of a 50-Hz Magnetic Field on the Cardiovascular System in Rats. Journal of Radiation Research, 57, 627-636.

[5]   Parsegian, V.A., Rand, R.P. and Rau, D.C. (2000) Osmotic Stress, Crowding, Preferential Hydration, and 3 Binding: A Comparison of Perspectives. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 3987-3992.

[6]   Ayrapetyan, S.N., Suleymanyan, M.A., Saghyan, A.A. and Dadalyan, S.S. (1984) Autoregulation of the Electrogenic Sodium Pump. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 4, 367-384.

[7]   Ayrapetyan, S.N., Arvanov, V.L., Maginyan, S.N. and Azatyan, K.V. (1985) Further Study of the Correlation between Na-Pump Activity and Membrane Chemosensitivity. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 5, 231-243.

[8]   Ayrapetyan, S.N., Rychkov, G.Y. and Suleymanyan, M.A. (1988) Effects of Water Flow on Transmembrane Ionic Currents in Neurons of Helix pomatia and in Squid Giant Axon. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 89, 179-186.

[9]   Klassen, V.I. (1982) Magnetized Water Systems. Chemistry Press, Moscow, 296. (In Russian)

[10]   Lednev, V.V. (1991) Possible Mechanism for the Influence of Weak Magnetic Field on Biological Systems. Bioelectromagnetics, 12, 71-75.

[11]   Ayrapetyan, S.N., Grigorian, K.V., Avanesyan, A.S. and Stamboltsian, K.V. (1994) Magnetic Fields alter Electrical Properties of Solutions and Their Physiological Effects. Bioelectromagnetics, 15, 133-142.

[12]   Borgnia, M., Nielsen, S., Engel, A. and Aqre, P. (1999) Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Aquaporin Water Channels. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 68, 425-458.

[13]   Hoffmann, E.K., Sorensen, B.H., Sauter, D.P. and Lambert, I.H. (2015) Role of Volume-Regulated and Calcium-Activated Anion Channels in Cell Volume Homeostasis, Cancer and Drug Resistance. Channels (Austin), 9, 380-396.

[14]   Blaustein, M.P. and Lederer, W.J. (1999) Na+/Ca2+ Exchange. Its Physiological Implications. Physiological Reviews, 79, 763-854.

[15]   Xie, Z. and Askari, A. (2002) Na+/K+-ATPase as a Signal Transducer. European Journal of Biochemistry, 269, 2434-2439.

[16]   Ayrapetyan, S.N., Baghdasaryan, N., Mikayelyan, Y., et al. (2015) Cell Hydration as a Marker for Non-Ionizing Radiation. In: Markov, M., Ed., Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 193-215.

[17]   Ayrapetyan, S.N. (2015) The Role of Cell Hydration in Realization of Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR). Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34, 197-210.

[18]   Ayrapetyan, S., Heqimyan, A. and Nikoghosyan, A. (2017) The Comparative Study of 8Hz EMF Effect on Tissue Hydration in Brain Cortex and Subcortex of Rats. Advances in Life Sciences, 7, 31-38.

[19]   Narinyan, L., Ayrapetyan, G. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2012) Age-Dependent Magnetosensitivity of Heart Muscle Hydration. Bioelectromagnetics, 33, 452-458.

[20]   Narinyan, L., Ayrapetyan, G. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2013) Age-Dependent Magnetosensitivity of Heart Muscle Ouabain Receptors. Bioelectromagnetics, 34, 312-322.

[21]   Martirosyan, V., Baghdasaryan, N. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2013) Bidirectional Frequency-Dependent Effect of Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on E. coli K-12. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32, 291-300.

[22]   Baghdasaryan, N., Mikayelyan, Y., Barseghyan, S., Dadasyan, E. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2012) The Modulation Impact of Illumination and Background Radiation on 8 Hz-Induced Infrasound Effect on Physicochemical Properties of Physiological Solution. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31, 310-319.

[23]   Baghdasaryan, N., Mikayelyan, Y., Nikoghosyan, A. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2013) The Impact of Background Radiation, Illumination and Temperature on EMF-Induced Changes of Aqua Medium Properties. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32, 390-400.

[24]   Krnjevic, K. (1992) Cellular and Synaptic Actions of General Anaesthetics. General Pharmacology, 23, 965-975.

[25]   Heqimyan, A., Deghoyan, A. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2011) Ketamine-Induced Cell Dehydration as a Mechanism of Its Analgesic and Anesthetic Effects. Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, 4, 42-49.

[26]   Adrian, R. (1956) The Effect of Internal and External K Concentration on the Membrane Potential of Frog Muscle. The Journal of Physiology, 133, 631-658.

[27]   Danielyan, A.A. and Ayrapetyan, S.N. (1999) Changes of Hydration of Rats’ Tissues after in Vivo Exposure to 0.2 Tesla Steady Magnetic Field. Bioelectromagnetics, 20, 123-128.<123::AID-BEM7>3.0.CO;2-A

[28]   Danielyan, A.A., Mirakyan, M.M., Grigoryan, G.Y. and Ayrapetian, S.N. (1999) The Static Magnetic Field on Ouabain H3 Binding by Cancer Tissue. Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 31, 139-144.

[29]   Ayrapetyan, S.N. (2006) Cell Aqua Medium as a Primary Target for the Effect of Electromagnetic Fields. In: Ayrapetyan, S. and Markov, M., Eds., Bioelectromagnetics: Current Concepts, NATO Science Series, Springer Press, Dordrecht, 31-63.

[30]   Skou, J. (1957) The Influence of Some Cations on an Adenosine Triphosphatase from Peripheral Nerves. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 64, 571-575.

[31]   Deghoyan, A., Nikoghosyan, A., Heqimyan, A. and Ayrapetyan, S.N. (2014) Age-Dependent Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Brain Tissue Hydration. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 33, 58-67.

[32]   Saghian, A., Ayrapetyan, S. and Carpenter, D. (1996) Low Concentrations of Ouabain Stimulate Na:Ca Exchange in Neurons. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 16, 180-185.

[33]   Evans, D. (2009) Osmotic and Ionic Regulation: Cells and Animals. CRC Press, New York.

[34]   Kojima, M., Ayrapetyan, S. and Koketsu, K. (1984) On the Membrane Potential Independent Mechanism of Sodium Pump-Induced Inhibition of Spontaneous Electrical Activity of Japanese Land Snail Neurons. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 77, 577-583.

[35]   Ayrapetyan, S. and Rychkov, G. (1985) The Presence of Reserve Ion Channels in Membranes of Giant Snail Neurons and Giant Squid Axons. DAN SSSR, 285, 1464-1467. (In Russian)

[36]   Suleymanian, M., Ayrapetyan, V., Arakelyan, V. and Ayrapetyan, S. (1993) The Effect of Osmotic Gradient on the Outward Potassium Current in Dialyzed Neurons of Helix Pomatia. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 13, 183-190.

[37]   Lehninger, A.L. (1970) Mitochondria and Calcium Ion Transport. Biochemical Journal, 119, 129-138.

[38]   Baker, P., Blaustein, M., Hodgkin, A. and Steinhardt, S. (1969) The Influence of Ca on Na Efflux in Squid Axons. The Journal of Physiology, 200, 431-458.

[39]   Nikoghosyan, A., Heqimyan, A. and Ayrapetyan, S.N. (2016) Primary Mechanism Responsible for Age-Dependent Neuronal Dehydration. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5, 5-14.

[40]   Siegel, G., Agranoff, B., Albers, R., Fisher, R. and Uhler, M. (1999) Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 6th Edition, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.

[41]   Heqimyan, A., Narinyan, L., Nikoghosyan, A. and Ayrapetyan, S. (2015) Age-Dependent Magnetic Sensitivity of Brain and Heart Muscles. In: Markov, M., Ed., Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 217-230.