JWARP  Vol.11 No.1 , January 2019
Analytical Errors in the Determination of Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus in Waters Based on Laboratory Experiences
Abstract: Phosphorus has been closely associated with eutrophication, a growing ecological problem globally. Because bacterial and algae responds to organic and inorganic nutrients differently, developing an accurate analytical method for the determination of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) is critical for understanding eutrophication. This paper describes analytical variations observed in laboratory experiments for the determination of DIP and DOP. Several experimental parameters including phosphorus reagents’ temperature, water sample matrix, pH, and autoclave methods are investigated. With the optimization of the autoclave procedure, the recoveries of 8 model organic phosphorus compounds (i.e. adenosine-5-triphosphate di-sodium salt (ATP), phytic acid (PTA), sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MPT), p-nitrophenyl phosphate magnesium salt (p-NPP), β-D-glucose-6-phosphate monosodium salt (G-6-P) and cocarboxylase (COCA)) are all well above 90% indicating significant analytical method improvement.
Cite this paper: Zhao, J. , Liu, M. and Chen, M. (2019) Analytical Errors in the Determination of Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus in Waters Based on Laboratory Experiences. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 53-67. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.111004.

[1]   Bostrom, B., Jansson, M. and Forsberg, C. (1982) Phosphorus Release from Lake Sediments. Archives of Hydrobiology, 18, 5-59

[2]   Gardolinski, P.C.F.C., Worsfold, P.J. and McKelvie, I.D. (2004) Seawater Induced Release and Transformation of Organic and Inorganic Phosphorus from River Sediments. Water Research, 38, 688-692.

[3]   Herbes, S.E., Allen, H.E. and Mancy, K.H. (1975) Enzymatic Characterization of Soluble Organic Phosphorus in Lake Water. Science, 187, 432-434.

[4]   Quiquampoix, H. and Mousain, D. (2005) Organic Phosphorus in the Environment. In: Turner, B.L., Frossard, E. and Baldwin, D.S., Eds., Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Organic Phosphorus, CABI, London, 89.

[5]   Redfield, A.C., Smith, H.P. and Ketchum, B. (1937) The Cycle of Organic Phosphorus in the Gulf of Maine. The Biological Bulletin, 73, 421-443.

[6]   Whitton, B.A., et al. (2005) Organic Phosphorus in the Environment. In: Turner, B.L., Frossard, E. and Baldwin, D.S., Eds., Ecological Aspects of Phosphatase Activity in Cyanobacteria, Eukaryotic Algae and Bryophytes, CABI, London, 205.

[7]   Monbet, P., McKelvie, I.D. and Worsfold, P.J. (2009) Dissolved Organic Phosphorus Speciation in the Waters of the Tamar Estuary (SW England). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 1027-1038.

[8]   John, M.K. (1970) Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus in Soil and Plant Materials with Ascorbic Acid. Soil Science, 109, 214-220.

[9]   To, Y.S. and Randall, C.W. (1977) Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid Method for Determination of Orthophosphates. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 49, 689-692.

[10]   Pai, S.C., Yang, C.C. and Riley, J.P. (1990) Effects of Acidity and Molybdate Concentration on the Kinetics of the Formation of the Phosphoantimonylmolybdenum Blue Complex. Analytica Chimica Acta, 229, 115-120.

[11]   Blomqvist, S., Hjellstrom, K. and Sjosten, A. (1993) Interference from Arsenate, Fluoride and Silicate When Determining Phosphate in Water by the Phosphoantimolylmolybdenum Blue Method. International Journal of Environment Analytical Chemistry, 54, 3-43.

[12]   Zhao, J.B. (2006) Analytical Methods for the Determination of Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus in Natural Water, in 2nd Year Report. SEOES: University of Plymouth.

[13]   Smil, V. (2000) Phosphorus in the Environment: Natural Flows and Human Interferences. Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 25, 53-88.

[14]   APHA (1976) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 14th Edition, American Public Health Association, New York.

[15]   Mankasingh, U. (2005) Techniques for Studying the Biogeochemistry of Nutrients in the Tamar Catchment. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Plymouth, Plymouth.

[16]   Langston, W.J., et al. (2003) Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: Plymouth Sound and Estuaries cSAC, SPA. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 315-324.

[17]   Tuckwell, R. (2008) Flow Injection Techniques for the Determination of Nutrients in Natural Waters. MPhil Thesis, University of Plymouth, Plymouth.

[18]   Linge, K.L. and Oldham, C.E. (2001) Interference from Arsenate When Determining Phosphate by the Malachite Green Method. Analytica Chimica Acta, 450, 247-252.

[19]   Holleman, A.F. and Wiberg, E. (2001) Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, 741-755.

[20]   Badr, E.A., Tappin, A. and Achterberg, E. (2008) Distributions and Seasonal Variability of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Two Estuaries in SW England. Marine Chemistry, 110, 153-164.

[21]   Mighanetara, K., et al. (2008) Contaminant Fluxes from Point and Diffuse Sources from Abandoned Mines in the River Tamar Catchment, UK. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 100, 116-124.

[22]   Elbaz-Poulichet, F., et al. (1999) Trace Element Geochemistry in the Upper Amazon River. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 36, 1061-1066.

[23]   Kerouel, R. and Aminot, A. (1995) Model Compounds for the Determination of Organic and Total Phosphorus Dissolved in Natural Waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 318, 385-390.

[24]   Thurman, E.M. (1985) Organic Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Nijhoff & Junk, Boston, 9.

[25]   McKelvie, I.D. (2005) Separation, Preconcentration and Speciation of Organic Phosphorus in Environmental Samples. In: Turner, B.L.e.a., Ed., Organic Phosphorus in the Environment, CABI Publishing, London, 1-20.

[26]   Haygarth, P.M., Warwick, M.S. and House, W.A. (1997) Size Distribution of Colloidal Molybdate Reactive Phosphorus in River Waters and Soil Solution. Water Research, 31, 439-448.

[27]   Ridal, J.J. and Moore, R.M. (1990) A Re-Examination of the Measurement of Dissolved Organic Phosphorus in Seawater. Marine Chemistry, 29, 19-31.

[28]   Schwab, E.C. (2007) Low-Level Phosphorus Determination by USEPA Persulfate Digestion Method 365.1. National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, 44.

[29]   Rowland, A.P. and Haygarth, P.M. (1997) Determination of Total Phosphorus in Soil Solutions. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 410-415.

[30]   Worsfold, P.J., et al. (2005) Sampling, Sample Treatment and Quality Assurance Issues for the Determination of Phosphorus Species in Natural Waters and Soils. Talanta, 66, 273-293.

[31]   Maher, W. and Woo, L. (1998) Procedures for the Storage and Digestion of Natural Waters for the Determination of Filterable Reactive Phosphorus, Total Filterable Phosphorus and Total Phosphorus. Analytica Chimica Acta, 375, 5-47.

[32]   Martin, M., Celi, L. and Barberis, E. (1999) Determination of Low Concentration of Organic. Phosphorus in Soil Solution. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30, 1909-1917.

[33]   Espinosa, M., Turner, B.L. and Haygarth, P.M. (1999) Preconcentration and Separation of Trace Phosphorus Compounds in Soil Leachate. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28, 1497-1504.

[34]   Jenkins, D. (1986) Advanced Chemistry. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 41.

[35]   Nguyen, L. and Sukias, J. (2002) Faecal Contamination and the Removal of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in Drainage Ditches. In: Currie, L.D. and Loganathan, P., Eds., Dairy Farm Soil Management, Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, 261-266.

[36]   Aminot, A. and Kérouel, R. (2001) An Automated Photo-Oxidation Method for the Determination of Dissolved Organic Phosphorus in Marine and Fresh Water. Marine Chemistry, 76, 113-126.

[37]   Sandford, R.C., Exenberger, A. and Worsfold, P.J. (2007) Nitrogen Cycling in Natural Waters Using in Situ, Reagentless UV Spectrophotometry with Simultaneous Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 8420-8425.