JWARP  Vol.11 No.1 , January 2019
Groundwater Pollution and Remediation
Abstract: Groundwater pollution is imminent in most developing countries as a result of increased anthropogenic activities apart from possible natural pollutants. This study reviewed groundwater pollution and discussed possible remediation measures. Sources of pollution can be categorized into two major types: point source pollution and non-point source pollution. Point source pollution (e.g. municipal sewage treatment plant and industrial plant, intense evaporation in shallow aquifers, degradation of water sources in areas located in geothermal/volcanic fields, and rock oxidation) is a single identify localized source while non-point source pollution (diffuse sources such as human land use, land use changes, chemical reactions of elements in the air or in the water and pollutes runoff from agricultural areas draining into a river) is characterized by multiple discharge point. Point source is relatively easy to identify, quantify and control. On the other hand, non-point source is difficult to monitor and control because the pollution cannot be traced to a single point of discharge. Pollution occurrence depends on the level of contaminant transported. Contaminants can be transported through filtration, sorption, chemical processes, microbiological decomposition and dilution. Groundwater pollution may cause ecosystem imbalance apart from severe sickness which may lead to death. Prevention of groundwater pollution is more appropriate than remediation. Such preventive measures include proper waste disposal, monitoring of hazardous materials, conducting environmental audit periodically and intensifying health education while remediation includes stream stripping, oxygen sparging, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and thermal treatment. This study revealed two main sources (point source and non-point source) of pollution with non-point pollution more difficult to remediate due to extent of spread. In addition, most pollution of groundwater is anthropocentric and can be prevented through intensive health education.
Cite this paper: Talabi, A. and Kayode, T. (2019) Groundwater Pollution and Remediation. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 1-19. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.111001.

[1]   Humaira, D. and Jose, L.M. (2009) Bridging Divides for Water. 5th World Water (Water Related Migration, Changing Land use and Human settlements, Istanbul, Turkey, 17-18 March 2009). UNW-DPC Publication Series. Knowledge No. 4., 5.

[2]   Gleick, P.H. (1996) Water Resources. In: Schneider, S.H., Ed., Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 2, 817-823.

[3]   World Population Clock (2017) 7.6 Billion People “Worldometer”.

[4]   Van Bavel, J. (2013) The World Population Explosion: Causes, Backgrounds and Projections for the Future. Facts, vIews & Visions in ObGyn, 5, 281-291.

[5]   Cosgrove, W.J. and Rijsberman, F.R. (2000) World Water Vision: Making Water Everybody’s Business. Earthscan Publishing, London.

[6]   Postigo, C., Martinez, D.E., Grondona, S. and Miglioranza, K.S.B. (2018) Groundwater Pollution: Sources, Mechanisms, and Prevention. 87-96.

[7]   Currell, M.J. and Han, D. (2017) The Global Drain: Why China’s Water Pollution Problems Should Matter to the Rest of the World. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 59, 16-29.

[8]   Kamarudzaman., A.N., Feng, V.K., Aziz, R.A. and Ab Jalil, M.F. (2011) Study of Point and Non Point Sources Pollution—A Case Study of Timah Tasoh Lake in Perlis, Malaysia. 2011 International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science IPCBEE, IACSIT Press, Singapore, Vol. 19.

[9]   Konikow, L. and Patten Jr., E. (1985) Groundwater Forecasting. In: Anderson, M.G. and Burt, T.P., Eds., Hydrological Forecasting, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester.

[10]   Canter, L.W., Knox, R.C. and Fairchild, D.M. (1988) Ground Water Quality Protection. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan, 562.

[11]   Manson, C.F. (1991) Biology of Freshwater Pollution. 2nd Edition, Longman Scientific and Technical, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 351.

[12]   Connell, D.W. (1981) Water Pollution. University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.

[13]   Zaporozec, A. and Miller, J.C. (2000) Groundwater Pollution. UNESCO-PHI, París, 1-24.

[14]   Jackson, R.E., Ed. (1980) Aquifer Contamination and Protection. Studies and Reports in Hydrogeology Series, 30. UNESCO, París.

[15]   USEPA (1991) “Getting Up to Speed” for Section C, “Ground Water Contamination” Is Adapted from US EPA Seminar Publication. Wellhead Protection: A Guide for Small Communities. Chapter 3. EPA/625/R-93/002.

[16]   Pal, A., Gin, K.Y.H., Lin, A.Y.C. and Reinhard, M. (2010) Impacts of Emerging Organic Contaminants on Freshwater Resources: Review of Recent Occurrences, Sources, Fate and Effects. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 6062-6069.

[17]   Lapworth, D.J., Baran, N., Stuart, M.E. and Ward, R.S. (2012) Emerging Organic Contaminants in Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Fate and Occurrence. Environmental Pollution, 163, 287-303.

[18]   Singhal, J.C., Sharma, U.C., Gurjar, B.R. and Gov, J.N. (2014) Environmental Science and Engineering Volume 4 : Water Pollution & Waste Water Treatment.

[19]   Panouillères, M., Boillot, C. and Perrodin, Y. (2007) Study of the Combined Effects of a Paracetic Acid-Based Disinfectant and Surfactants Contained in Hospital Effluents on Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicology, 16, 327-340.

[20]   Laber, J., Raimud, H. and Shrestha, R. (1999) Two-Stage Constructed Wetland for Treating Hospital Wastewater in Nepal. Water Science & Technology, 40, 317-324.

[21]   Kümmerer, K. (2001) Drugs in the Environment: Emission of Drugs, Diagnostic Aids and Disinfectants into Wastewater by Hospitals in Relation to Other Sources—A Review. Chemosphere, 45, 957-969.

[22]   Emmanuel, E., Perrodin, Y., Blanchard, J.M., Keck., G. and Vermande, P. (2005) Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Hospital Wastewater: A Proposed Framework for Raw Effluents Discharging into Urban Sewer Network. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 117, 1–11.

[23]   Emmanuel, E., Pierre, M.G. and Perrodin, Y. (2009) Groundwater Contamination by Microbiological and Chemical Substances Released from Hospital Wastewater: Health Risk Assessment for Drinking Water Consumers. Environment International, 35, 718-726.

[24]   Keister, B.A. and Repetto, P.C. (2007) Landfills. In: Delleur, J.W., Ed., The Handbook of Groundwater Engineering, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 33-1-33-31.

[25]   Buszka, P.M., Yeskis, D.J., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D. and Meyer, M.T. (2009) Waste-Indicator and Pharmaceutical Compounds in Landfill-Leachate-Affected Ground Water near Elkhart, Indiana, 2000-2002. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 82, 653-659.

[26]   Ahel, M., Mikac, N., Cosovic, B., Prohic, E. and Soukup, V. (1998) The Impact of Contamination from a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Zagreb, Croatia) on Underlying Soil. Water Science & Technology, 37, 203-210.

[27]   Holm, J.V., Rügge, K., Bjerg, P.L. and Christensen, H. (1995) Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds in the Groundwater down Gradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). Environmental Science & Technology, 29, 1415-1420.

[28]   Stamatis, G., Voudouris, K. and Karefilakis, F. (2001) Groundwater Pollution by Heavy Metals in Historical Mining Area of Lavrio, Attica, Greece. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 128, 61-83.

[29]   Garba, T., Babanyara, Y.Y., Ibrahim, D.B. and Lot, I. (2014) Assessment of Underground Water Contamination Due to Early Coal Mining Activities in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 2, 166-170.

[30]   Giri, S. and Singh, A.K. (2015) Human Health Risk Assessment via Drinking Water Pathway Due to Metal Contamination in the Groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 63-77.

[31]   Velthof, G., Oudendag, D., Witzke, H., Asman, W., Klimont, Z. and Oenema, O. (2009) Integrated Assessment of Nitrogen Losses from Agriculture in EU-27 Using MITERRA-EUROPE. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38, 402-417.

[32]   Savci, S. (2012) An Agricultural Pollutant: Chemical Fertilizer. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 3, 77-80.

[33]   Cruz, J.V., Silva, M.O., Dias, M.I. and Prudencio, M.I. (2013) Groundwater Composition and Pollution Due to Agricultural Practices at Sete Cidades Volcano (Azores, Portugal). Applied Geochemistry, 29, 162-173.

[34]   Werner, A.D., Bakker, M., Post, V.E.A., Vandenbohede, A., Lu, C., Ataie-Ashtiani, B., Simmons, C.T. and Barry, D.A. (2013) Seawater Intrusion Processes, Investigation and Management: Recent Advances and Future Challenges. Advances in Water Resources, 51, 3-26.

[35]   WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th Edition, IWA Publishing, London, 564 p.

[36]   Megremi, I., Vasilatos, Ch., Atsarou, A., Theodoratou, Ch., Economou-Eliopoulos, M. and Mitsis, I. (2013) Geochemical Evidences for the Sources of the Cr(VI) Contamination in Groundwater in Central Euboea and Assopos-Thiva Basins, Greece: Natural versus Anthropogenic Origin. European Water, 41, 23-34.

[37]   Russoniello, C.J., Fernandez, C., Bratton, J.F., Banaszak, J.F., Krantz, D.E., Andres, A.S., Konikow, L.F. and Michael, H.A. (2013) Geologic Effects on Groundwater Salinity and Discharge into an Estuary. Journal of Hydrology, 498, 1-12.

[38]   Umar, M., Waseem, A., Sabir, M.A., Kassi, A.M. and Khan, A.S. (2013) The Impact of Geology on Recharge Areas on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of Zhob River Basin, Pakistan. Clean—Soil, Air, Water, 41, 119-127.

[39]   Boulding, J.R. (1995) Practical Handbook of Soil, Vadose Zone and Groundwater Contamination; Assessment, Prevention and Remediation. Leurs Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

[40]   Semprini, L., Roberts, P.V. and Hopkins, G.D. (1990) A Field Evaluation of in-Situ Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes: Part 2, Results of Biostimulation and Biotransformation Experiments. Groundwater, 28, 715-727.

[41]   Madsen, E.L. (1991) Determining in Situ Biodegradation: Facts and Challenges. Environmental Science & Technology, 25, 1663-1673.

[42]   Baier, J.H., Benjamin Jr., W.L., Fronk, C.A. and Kramer, S.J. (1987) Using Reverse Osmosis to Remove Agricultural Chemicals from Groundwater. American Water Works Association, 79, 55-60.

[43]   Thayer, A.M. (1991) Bioremediation: Innovative Technology for Cleaning Up Hazardous Waste. Chemical Engineering News, 69, 24-44.

[44]   Young, C.P. (1983) Technical Guidelines for the Rehabilitation of Groundwater Contaminated by Organochlorine Compounds of Industrial Origin. In: Ziglio, G., Ed., Ground Water Contamination with Organo-chlorine Compounds of Industrial Origin, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, 315-354.

[45]   Winter, R.E., Yen, K.M. and Ensley, B.D. (1989) Efficient Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Recombinant Escherichia coli. Biotechnology, 7, 282-285.