AA  Vol.9 No.1 , February 2019
Development as Crossing: An Anthropological Approach
Abstract: This article proposes an anthropological reflection about development, in the philosophical sense of the term. Contemporary philosophers seem to be far from the question of development, which is an essential question for the societies of our time. It is therefore urgent to enunciate a theory of development, anthropological reflection that lies beyond economic and political theories on development. It is necessary to think about development, in its link with humanity or the essence of the human, by leading it to the element of its truth, namely the individual well-being, which escapes all attempts at control, probability and econometrics. This article proposes a new paradigm of development calls for a fundamental reflection, based on the analysis of human consciousness. We examine human consciousness, to understand its foundations about crossing, in a discourse with a universal aim.
Cite this paper: Boundja, C. (2019) Development as Crossing: An Anthropological Approach. Advances in Anthropology, 9, 32-55. doi: 10.4236/aa.2019.91003.

[1]   Aristotle (1801). Metaphysics. London: Davis, Wilks and Taylor.

[2]   Aristotle (1991). Physics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[3]   Aristotle (1999). Politics. Kitchener: Batoche Books.

[4]   Beland, D., & Cox, R. H. (2011). Ideas and Politics in Social Science Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5]   Bergson, H. (1938). La pensée et le mouvant. Essais et conférences. Paris: Presses Universitaire de France.

[6]   Bloch, E. (1986). The Principle of Hope (Vol. 1). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

[7]   Bruce, C.-A. (2016). The State of Development Studies: Origins, Evolution and Prospects. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 37, 5-26.

[8]   Fink, E. (1974). Phénoménologie. Paris: Editions de Minuit.

[9]   Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

[10]   Heidegger, M. (2000). Introduction to Metaphysics. Yale: Yale Nota Bene, Yale University Press.

[11]   Kant, E. (1819). Logic. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall.

[12]   Kothari, U. (2005). A Radical History of Development Studies: Individual, Institutions and Ideologies. London: Zed Books.

[13]   Levinas, E. (1993). Entre nous. Paris: Grasset.

[14]   Nussbaum, M. (1988). Nature, Function and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution. In J. Annas and R. H. Grimm (Eds.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (Supplementary Volume, pp. 145-184). Oxford: Clarendon.

[15]   Rist, G. (1997). The History of Development: From Western Origin to Global Faith. London: Zed.

[16]   Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf.

[17]   Sen, A. (2005). How Does Development Happen? Cato Journal, 25, 455-459.