Back
 AS  Vol.10 No.1 , January 2019
Composition and Properties of Maple Sap, Concentrate, and Permeate
Abstract: Reverse osmosis is used widely in the maple syrup industry to concentrate maple sap and increase the overall efficiency and profitability of syrup production. Sets of samples from maple producers utilizing a range of sap concentration levels were collected and analyzed to provide a portrait of the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of maple sap, concentrate, and permeate across a single production season. The results reinforce that reverse osmosis functions essentially as a concentration process, without significantly altering the fundamental proportions of sap constituents.
Cite this paper: van den Berg, A. , Perkins, T. and Isselhardt, M. (2019) Composition and Properties of Maple Sap, Concentrate, and Permeate. Agricultural Sciences, 10, 32-45. doi: 10.4236/as.2019.101004.
References

[1]   Perkins, T.D. and van den Berg, A.K. (2009) Maple Syrup-Production, Composition, Chemistry, and Sensory Characteristics. In: Taylor, S.L., Ed., Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 103-144.

[2]   Allard, G. (1981) Comparaison des sirops d’érable produits par osmose et par évaporation conventionnelle sur la base de leurs propriétés physique, chimiques et organoleptiques. Journée d’information sur la technique de l’osmose inverse. Centre Acer publication No: 101-HPG-0981.
http://www.centreacer.qc.ca/uploaded/Publications/62_Fr.pdf

[3]   Morselli, M.F., Whalen, M.L., Baggett, K.L. and Sendak, P.E. (1982) Quality of Syrup Produced from Sap Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis (RO). Maple Syrup Journal, 6, 18.

[4]   Sendak, P.E. and Morselli, M.F. (1984) Reverse Osmosis in the Production of Maple syrup. Forest Products Journal, 34, 57-61.

[5]   van den Berg, A.K., Perkins, T.D., Isselhardt, M.L., Godshall, M.A. and Lloyd, S.W. (2011) Effects of Producing Maple Syrup from Concentrated and Reconstituted Sap of Different Sugar Concentrations. International Sugar Journal, 113, 35-44.

[6]   van den Berg, A.K., Perkins, T.D., Isselhardt, M.L., Godshall, M.A. and Lloyd, S.W. (2012) Maple Syrup Production with Sap Concentrated to High Levels by Membrane Separation: Effects on Syrup Chemical Composition and Flavor. International Sugar Journal, 114, 572-576.

[7]   van den Berg, A.K., Perkins, T.D., Isselhardt, M.L., Godshall, M.A. and Lloyd, S.W. (2014) Effects of Membrane Separation on Maple Syrup Composition and Flavor. International Sugar Journal, 116, 656-665.

[8]   van den Berg, A.K., Perkins, T.D., Isselhardt, M.L., Godshall, M.A. and Lloyd, S.W. (2015) Effects of Sap Concentration with Reverse Osmosis on Syrup Composition and Flavor—A Summary of Experiments Conducted at the University of Vermont Proctor Maple Research Center. Maple Digest, 54, 11-33.

[9]   Stuckel, J.G. and Low, N.H. (1996) The Chemical Composition of 80 Pure Maple Syrup Samples Produced in North America. Food Research International, 29, 373-379.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(96)00000-2

[10]   Perkins, T.D., Morselli, M.F., van den Berg, A.K. and Wilmot, T.R. (2006) Maple Chemistry and Quality. In: Heiligmann, R.B., Koelling, M.R. and Perkins, T.D., Eds., North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual, 2nd Edition, The Ohio State University, Ohio, 294-300.

[11]   Hornung, R.W. and Reed, L. (1990) Estimation of Average Concentration in the Presence of Nondetectable Values. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 5, 46-51.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1047322X.1990.10389587

[12]   Allard, G.B. and Belizle, M. (2004) Cahier de Transfert Technologique en Acériculture. Section 6: Concentration partielle de l’eau érable par osmose inversée. Centre de référence en agriculture et agroalimentaire du Québec, La Pocatière, 38 p.

 
 
Top