JBM  Vol.7 No.1 , January 2019
Serum Vitamin D Associated with Insulin Secretory Function in Impaired Fasting Glucose Subjects
Abstract: Background: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a prediabetic condition and is a high-risk state for developing diabetes and associated complications. The aim of this study was to explore the association of vitamin D with insulin secretory function among the IFG subjects. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; from June 2016 to May 2017, on forty-six (46) IFG subjects. Serum blood glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase method, Fasting serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, TG and HDL-c); liver enzyme like alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured by enzymatic-colorimetric method; Serum creatinine was measured by colorimetric kinetic method; Serum Insulin and vitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by ELISA method; insulin secretory capacity (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) using HOMA-CIGMA software. Results: Among 46 IFG subjects, 22 (47.8%) were male and rest 24 (52.2%) were female and their mean age was 40 (±8) years. Mean fasting serum glucose level of the study subjects was 6.33 (±0.23) mmol/l and mean postprandial serum glucose level was 7.23 (±0.41) mmol/l. Mean serum vitamin D level of the study subjects was 26.54 (±8.83) ng/ml. Mean HOMA%S, HOMA%B and HOMA%IR of the total study subjects were 48.34 (±16.70), 102.16 (±23.13) and 2.28 (±0.70) respectively. Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA%B) was significantly higher (p = 0.047) in the subjects having higher vitamin D [25(OH)D level ≥ 20 ng/ml] compared to the subjects having lower vitamin D [25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/ml]. Conclusion: High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D exists among IFG subjects. Vitamin D is associated with insulin secretory function in IFG subjects. Population based prospective studies using larger sample size should be done to confirm the results.
Cite this paper: Rahman, A. , Sohel, M. , Bhuiyan, F. , Ashrafee, F. , Hossain, M. , Islam, S. , Ali, M. and Zinnat, R. (2019) Serum Vitamin D Associated with Insulin Secretory Function in Impaired Fasting Glucose Subjects. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 83-98. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.71008.

[1]   World Health Organization (2006) Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycaemia: Report of a WHO/IDF Consultation.

[2]   Morris, D.H., Khunti, K., Achana, F., Srinivasan, B., Gray, L.J., Davies, M.J. and Webb, D. (2013) Progression Rates from HbA^ sub 1c^ 6.0-6.4% and Other Prediabetes Definitions to Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Diabetologia, 56, 1489.

[3]   Tabák, A.G., Herder, C., Rathmann, W., Brunner, E.J. and Ki-vimaki, M. (2012) Prediabetes: A High-Risk State for Diabetes Development. The Lancet, 379, 2279-2290.

[4]   Boyle, J.P., Honeycutt, A.A., Narayan, K.V., Hoerger, T.J., Geiss, L.S., Chen, H. and Thompson, T.J. (2001) Projection of Diabetes Burden through 2050: Impact of Changing Demography and Disease Prevalence in the US. Diabetes Care, 24, 1936-1940.

[5]   Schianca, G.P., Rossi, A., Sainaghi, P.P., Maduli, E. and Bartoli, E. (2003) The Significance of Impaired Fasting Glucose versus Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Importance of Insulin Secretion and Resistance. Diabetes Care, 26, 1333-1337.

[6]   Abdul-Ghani, M.A., Matsuda, M., Jani, R., Jenkinson, C.P., Coletta, D.K., Kaku, K. and DeFronzo, R.A. (2008) The Relationship between Fasting Hyperglycemia and Insulin Secretion in Subjects with Normal or Impaired Glucose Tolerance. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 295, E401-E406.

[7]   Kanat, M., Mari, A., Norton, L., Winnier, D., DeFronzo, R.A., Jenkinson, C. and Abdul-Ghani, M.A. (2012) Distinct β-Cell Defects in Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Diabetes, 61, 47-53.

[8]   Kanat, M., Norton, L., Winnier, D., Jenkinson, C., DeFronzo, R.A. and Abdul-Ghani, M.A. (2011) Impaired Early-But Not Late-Phase Insulin Secretion in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose. Acta Diabetologica, 48, 209.

[9]   Faerch, K., Borch-Johnsen, K., Holst, J.J. and Vaag, A. (2009) Pathophysiology and Aetiology of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Does It Matter for Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetologia, 52, 1714-1723.

[10]   Rosen, C.J., Adams, J.S., Bikle, D.D., Black, D.M., Demay, M.B., Manson, J.E., Murad, M.H. and Kovacs, C.S. (2012) The Nonskeletal Effects of Vitamin D: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews, 33, 456-492.

[11]   Lim, S., Shin, H., Kim, M.J., Ahn, H.Y., Kang, S.M., Yoon, J.W., Choi, S.H., Kim, K.W., Song, J.H., Choi, S.I. and Chun, E.J. (2012) Vitamin D Inadequacy Is Associated with Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97, 169-178.

[12]   Savastano, S., Di Somma, C. and Colao, A. (2013) Vitamin-D & Prediabetes: A Promising Ménage in the Indian Scenario. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 138, 829.

[13]   Nemere, I., Schwartz, Z., Pedrozo, H., Sylvia, V.L., Dean, D.D. and Boyan, B.D. (1998) Identification of a Membrane Receptor for 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Which Mediates Rapid Activation of Protein Kinase C. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 13, 1353-1359.

[14]   Veldman, C.M., Cantorna, M.T. and DeLuca, H.F. (2000) Expression of 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Receptor in the Immune System. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 374, 334-338.

[15]   Palomer, X., González-Clemente, J.M., Blanco-Vaca, F. and Mauricio, D. (2008) Role of Vitamin D in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 10, 185-197.

[16]   Pittas, A.G., Dawson-Hughes, B., Li, T., Van Dam, R.M., Willett, W.C., Manson, J.E. and Hu, F.B. (2006) Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Diabetes Care, 29, 650-656.

[17]   Kayaniyil, S., Vieth, R., Retnakaran, R., Knight, J.A., Qi, Y., Gerstein, H.C., Perkins, B., Harris, S.B., Zinman, B. and Hanley, A.J. (2010) Association of Vitamin D with Insulin Resistance and Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Subjects at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33, 1379-1381.

[18]   Abbasi, F., Blasey, C., Feldman, D., Caulfield, M.P., Hantash, F.M. and Reaven, G.M. (2015) Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Defects in Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in Persons with Prediabetes, 2. The Journal of Nutrition, 145, 714-719.

[19]   Boucher, B.J., Mannan, N., Noonan, K., Hales, C.N. and Evans, S.J. (1995) Glucose Intolerance and Impairment of Insulin Secretion in Relation to Vitamin D Deficiency in East London Asians. Diabetologia, 38, 1239-1245.

[20]   Gultekin, M., Hekimsoy, Z., Oz, D., Hatiboglu, O., Alarslan, P., Ozmen, B., Onur, E. and Gozukara, C. (2015) Vitamin D Level in Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (Prediabetic) Patients. 17th European Congress of Endocrinology, 1 May 2015, Vol. 37.

[21]   Alemzadeh, R., Kichler, J., Babar, G. and Calhoun, M. (2008) Hypovitaminosis D in Obese Children and Adolescents: Relationship with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, Ethnicity, and Season. Metabolism, 57, 183-191.

[22]   Maghbooli, Z., Hossein-Nezhad, A., Karimi, F., Shafaei, A.R. and Larijani, B. (2008) Correlation between Vitamin D3 Deficiency and Insulin Resistance in Pregnancy. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 24, 27-32.

[23]   Forouhi, N.G., Luan, J.A., Cooper, A., Boucher, B.J. and Wareham, N.J. (2008) Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Is Predictive of Future Glycaemic Status and Insulin Resistance: The MRC Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000. Diabetes, 57, 2619-2626.

[24]   Yoon, H., Jeon, D.J., Park, C.E., You, H.S. and Moon, A.E. (2016) Relationship between Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Non-Diabetic Korean Adults. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 59, 139-144.

[25]   Chiu, K.C., Chu, A., Go, V.L. and Saad, M.F. (2004) Hypovitaminosis D Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and β Cell Dysfunction. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 820-825.

[26]   Ekbom, K. and Marcus, C. (2016) Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Prediabetes in Obese Swedish Children. Acta Paediatrica, 105, 1192-1197.

[27]   Parker, J., Hashmi, O., Dutton, D., Mavrodaris, A., Stranges, S., Kandala, N.B., Clarke, A. and Franco, O.H. (2010) Levels of Vitamin D and Cardiometabolic Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Maturitas, 65, 225-236.

[28]   Lim, S., Kim, M.J., Lim, S., Kim, M.J., Choi, S.H., Shin, C.S., Park, K.S., Jang, H.C., Billings, L.K., Meigs, J.B. and Choi, S.H. (2013) Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Asian Subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97, 524-530.

[29]   Bourlon, P.M., Billaudel, B. and Faure-Dussert, A. (1999) Influence of Vitamin D3 Deficiency and 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on De Novo Insulin Biosynthesis in the Islets of the Rat Endocrine Pancreas. Journal of Endocrinology, 160, 87-95.

[30]   Zeitz, U., Weber, K., Soegiarto, D.W., Wolf, E., Balling, R. and Erben, R.G. (2003) Impaired Insulin Secretory Capacity in Mice Lacking a Functional Vitamin D Receptor. The FASEB Journal, 17, 509-511.

[31]   Jacques, P.F., Felson, D.T., Tucker, K.L., Mahnken, B., Wilson, P.W., Rosenberg, I.H. and Rush, D. (1997) Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Its Determinants in an Elderly Population Sample. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 929-936.

[32]   Isaia, G., Giorgino, R. and Adami, S. (2001) High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in Female Type 2 Diabetic Population. Diabetes Care, 24, 1496-1496.

[33]   Bikle, D.D., Siiteri, P.K., Ryzen, E., Haddad, J.G. and Gee, E. (1985) Serum Protein Binding of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D: A Reevaluation by Direct Measurement of Free Metabolite Levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 61, 969-975.

[34]   Maestro, B., Molero, S., Bajo, S., Davila, N. and Calle, C. (2002) Transcriptional Activation of the Human Insulin Receptor Gene by 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 20, 227-232.

[35]   Arya, V., Bhambri, R., Godbole, M.M. and Mithal, A. (2004) Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Asian Indians. Osteoporosis International, 15, 56-61.

[36]   Vinodhini, V.M., Krishnan, A. and Ebenezer William, W. (2014) Vitamin D and Glycemic Control in Impaired Fasting Glycemia. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6, 245-249.

[37]   Nesby-O’Dell, S., Scanlon, K.S., Cogswell, M.E., Gillespie, C., Hollis, B.W., Looker, A.C., Allen, C., Doughertly, C., Gunter, E.W. and Bowman, B.A. (2002) Hypovitaminosis D Prevalence and Determinants among African American and White Women of Reproductive Age: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 187-192.

[38]   Mattila, C., Knekt, P., Mannisto, S., Rissanen, H., Laaksonen, M.A., Montonen, J. and Reunanen, A. (2007) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 2569-2570.

[39]   Grimnes, G., Emaus, N., Joakimsen, R.M., Figenschau, Y., Jenssen, T., Njolstad, I., Schirmer, H. and Jorde, R. (2010) Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in the Tromso Study 1994-95 and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during 11 Years of Follow-Up. Diabetic Medicine, 27, 1107-1115.

[40]   Pittas, A.G., Nelson, J., Mitri, J., Hillmann, W., Garganta, C., Nathan, D.M., Hu, F.B. and Dawson-Hughes, B. (2012) Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Progression to Diabetes in Patients at Risk for Diabetes: An Ancillary Analysis in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care, 35, 565-573.

[41]   Hypponen, E. and Power, C. (2006) Vitamin D Status and Glucose Homeostasis in the 1958 British Birth Cohort: The Role of Obesity. Diabetes Care, 29, 2244-2246.

[42]   Plotnikoff, G.A. and Quigley, J.M. (2003) Prevalence of Severe Hypovitaminosis D in Patients with Persistent, Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 78, 1463-1470.

[43]   Earthman, C.P., Beckman, L.M., Masodkar, K. and Sibley, S.D. (2012) The Link between Obesity and Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations: Considerations and Implications. International Journal of Obesity, 36, 387-396.

[44]   Kayaniyil, S., Retnakaran, R., Harris, S.B., Vieth, R., Knight, J.A., Gerstein, H.C., Perkins, B.A., Zinman, B. and Hanley, A.J. (2011) Prospective Associations of Vitamin D with β-Cell Function and Glycemia: The Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) Cohort Study. Diabetes, 60, 2947-2953.

[45]   Gao, Y., Wu, X., Fu, Q., Li, Y., Yang, T. and Tang, W. (2015) The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2015, Article ID: 636891.

[46]   Johnson, J.A., Grande, J.P., Roche, P.C. and Kumar, R.A. (1994) Immunohistochemical Localization of the 1,25(OH)2D3 Receptor and Calbindin D28k in Human and Rat Pancreas. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 267, 356-360.