AS  Vol.10 No.1 , January 2019
Current Fertilization Practice and Phosphorus Loading from Soils near Alpine Lakes of Yunnan Province, China
Abstract: Phosphorus loss from fertilization is a significant source of pollution to freshwater lakes worldwide. Production of flowers, vegetables, staple food and vineyard in regions surrounding Dianchi, Erhai, Fuxian and Xingyun lakes in Yunnan Province is large-scale. Previous studies have shown that annual fertilizer application rates (AFARs) were excessive in these regions. Significant amount of arable land near lakes has been used to build recreational parks with plants that receive less fertilization to reduce P loading. To answer whether rAFARs were associated with specific crops, AFARs of specific land uses were investigated through interviews. To estimate P loading, NaHCO3-P and NaOH-P concentrations were measured in 753 soil samples of selected layers (0 - 5, 5 - 20, 20 - 40 cm) in regions surrounding these lakes. Soil texture, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were analyzed to characterize soils. P loading was high ranging from 999 to 2094 mg P/kg as measured by NaOH-P, and levels of NaHCO3-P from 18.6 to 92.2 mg P/kg. AFARs to flower (4745 kg/ha), and vegetable (2967 kg/ha) were higher than those applied to staple food (945 kg/ha), and plants in recreation parks (200 kg/ha). The highest NaHCO3-P and NaOH-P concentrations in selected layers were associated with production of flowers, vegetables, and grapes. Although all layers of soils that were used for recreation parks in regions near Dianchi lake contained lower NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P was almost as high as with soils cultivated with flowers probably reflecting historical additions or differences in soil type. Here we show for the first time in local regions that the production of flowers, grapes and vegetables was a critical source contributing to the buildup of both readily available (NaHCO3-P) and reversibly available P (NaOH-P). Build-up of recreational parks with plants that receive less fertilization would be a long-term remediation to reduce P loading of soils in regions near Dianchi lake.
Cite this paper: Zou, L. , Falinski, K. , Zhao, P. , Li, S. , Lu, L. , Dai, M. , Zhang, Y. , Yost, R. and Wang, J. (2019) Current Fertilization Practice and Phosphorus Loading from Soils near Alpine Lakes of Yunnan Province, China. Agricultural Sciences, 10, 1-16. doi: 10.4236/as.2019.101001.

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