JSS  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2018
Measuring the Level of Community Participation in a Demand Driven Development Project: Case of Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani Approach in Coastal Kenya
ABSTRACT
While active participation of beneficiary communities in development initiatives is often considered critical, its value however, cannot be empirically determined without a good measure of the level of community participation. The objective of this study was to determine the level of community participation in the implementation of projects financed through a community grant facility referred in Kiswahili as Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani (HMP). The HMP project adopted a Community Driven Development (CDD) approach in engaging coastal communities in development initiatives. The research was carried out at the Kenya coastal region comprising six counties namely, Mombasa, Taita Taveta, Kwale, Kilifi, Lamu and Tana River. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive (frequencies, standard deviation and mean) with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The study revealed that there was a high (2.81) Community Participation Index (COPI) in the overall implementation of the HMP projects signifying a high level of participation. There was a relatively lower COPI during proposal development stage—an indication of lack of skill in proposal development probably due to the high illiteracy level among coastal communities. The study concludes that the CDD approach is effective in actively engaging communities in the implementation of development initiatives. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the CDD approach can be used to develop contextualized strategies of enhancing community participation in development projects. The study also recommends that to optimize community participation in development initiatives, the twin challenge of high levels of illiteracy and inadequate skill in proposal writing among coastal communities needs to be addressed by the County Governments, Non Governmental Organizations and other agencies involved in development work.

Cite this paper
Hassan, F. , Ong’ayo, H. and Osore, M. (2018) Measuring the Level of Community Participation in a Demand Driven Development Project: Case of Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani Approach in Coastal Kenya. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 189-203. doi: 10.4236/jss.2018.612017.
References
[1]   Cornwall, A. (2009) Locating Citizen Participation. IDS Working Paper, 33(2)i, IDS, Brighton.

[2]   Ayman, M.N. (2011) Challenges and Advantages of Community Participation as an Approach for Sustainable Urban Development in Egypt. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4, 23-36.

[3]   Cornwall, A. (2006) Historical Perspectives on Participation Development. International Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 44, 62-83.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14662040600624460

[4]   Mikkelsen, B. (2005) Methods for Development Work and Research: A New Guide for Practitioners. 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

[5]   Chambers, R. (2005) Ideas for Development. Earthscan, London.

[6]   Oina, G.P., Towett, G., Kirui, K.K. and Luvega, C. (2015) The Dilemma in Sustainability of Community Based Projects in Kenya. Global Journal of Advanced Research, 2, 757-768.

[7]   Awortwi, N. (2008). Scanning an Imperfect Activity in an Era of Fragmentation and Uncertainty. Future Research Quarterly, 7, 82-90.

[8]   Alam, A. and Ihsan, S. (2012) Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2, No. 8.

[9]   Cornwall, A. and Gaventa, J. (2001) From Users and Choosers to Makers and Shapers: Repositioning Participation in Social Policy. IDS Working Paper, 127, IDS, Brighton.

[10]   Lucas, B. and Dingie, R. (2000) Community Participation in Development: Nine Plagues and Twelve Commandments. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[11]   Cornwall, A. (2000) Beneficiary, Consumer, Citizen: Perspectives on Participation for Poverty Reduction. Sida Studies 2, Sida, Stockholm.

[12]   Ife, J. (2002) Community Development: Community-Based Alternative. In: An Age of Globalization, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Australia Pty Ltd., Frenchs Forest, 309 p.

[13]   Wong, S. (2012) What Have Been the Impacts of World Bank Community Driven Development Programs: CDD Impact Evaluation Review and Operational and Research Implications. Social Development Department.

[14]   WenJun, L. (2006) Community Decision-Making: Participation in Development. Annals of Tourism Research, 33, 132-143.

[15]   Stoll-Kleemann, S., De La Vega, C. and Schultz, L. (2010) The Role of Community Participation in the Effectiveness f UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Management: Evidence and Reflections from Two Parallel Global Surveys. Environmental Conservation, 37, 227-238.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S037689291000038X

[16]   Khwaja, I.A. (2004) Is Increasing Community Participation Always a Good Thing? Journal of the European Economic Association, 2, 427-436.
https://doi.org/10.1162/154247604323068113

[17]   Scott, K., George, A.S., Harvey, S.A., Mondal, S., Patel, G., Ved, R., Garimella, G. and Sheikh, K. (2017) Beyond Form and Functioning: Understanding How Contextual Factors Influence Village Health Committees in Northern India. PLoS One, 12, e0182982.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182982

[18]   Glattstein-Young, G. and London, L. (2010) Community Health Committees as a Vehicle for Participation in Advancing the Right to Health.

[19]   Israr, S.M. and Islam, A. (2006) Good Governance and Sustainability: A Case Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 21, 313-325.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.852

[20]   Mosquera, M., Zapata, Y., Lee, K., Arango, C. and Varela, A. (2002) Strengthening User Participation through Health Sector Reform in Colombia: A Study of Institutional Change and Social Representation. Health Policy Plan, 16, 52-60.

[21]   Foley, E.E. (2001) No Money, No Care: Women and Health Sector Reform in Senegal. Urban Anthropology, 30, 1-50.

[22]   Loewenson, R. (2000) Public Participation in Health Systems. Equinet Policy Series No. 6, Benaby Printers, Harare, 1-21.

[23]   Preece, J. (2006) Education for Inclusion. Convergence: International Journal of Adult Education, 39, 147-166.

[24]   Hayward, C., Simpson, L. and Wood, L. (2004) Still Left Out in the Cold: Problematizing Participatory Research and Development. Sociologia Ruralis, 44, 95-108.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2004.00264.x

[25]   Barnes, R. and Ashbolt, N. (2007) Power and Poverty: Concepts and Connections. World Bank, London and Washington DC.

[26]   Chifamba, E. (2013) Confronting the Challenges and Barriers to Community Participation in Rural Development Initiatives in Duhera District, Ward 12 Zimbabwe. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 1, 1-19.

[27]   Boyde, G. (2000) Village Appraisal: Is This a Case of Elegant Power? Paper Presented at Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow.
http://www.caledonia.org.uk/appraisa.htm

[28]   Campbell, J.R. (2001) Participatory Rural Appraisal as Qualitative Research: Distinguishing Methodological Issues from Participatory Claims. Human Organization, 60, 380-390.
https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.60.4.4bgnlmy60fkvq4r2

[29]   Brett, E.A. (2003) Participation and Accountability in Development Management. The Journal of Development Studies, 40, 1-29.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00220380412331293747

[30]   Gibson, N., Gibson, G. and MacAulay, A.C. (2001) Community-Based Research. In: Morse, J., Swanson, J. and Kuzel, A., Eds., The Nature of Qualitative Evidence, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 161-182. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412986236.n7

[31]   Oakley, P. (1991) Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development. International Labor Office, Geneva.

[32]   Chambers, R. (1992) Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory. Discussion Paper #311, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex.

[33]   Chambers, R. and Blackburn, J. (1996) The Power of Participation: PRA and Policy, IDS Policy Brief, Issue 7, August.

[34]   Brunner, I. and Guzman, A. (1989) Participatory Evaluation: A Tool to Assess Projects and Empower People. In: Conner, R.F. and Hendricks, M., Eds., International Innovations in Evaluation Methodology: New Directions for Program Evaluation, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/ev.1509

[35]   Rebien, C.C. (1992) Participatory Evaluation of Development Assistance: Dealing with Power and Facilitative Learning. Evaluation, 2, 151-171.
https://doi.org/10.1177/135638909600200203

[36]   Garaway, G.B. (1995) Participatory Evaluation. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 21, 85-102.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-491X(95)00007-H

[37]   Hassan, F., Ong’ayo, H., Osore, M., Morara, G. and Aura, C. (2017) Effect of Community Participation in Access to Social Services: A Case Study of Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani Approach in Coastal Kenya. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 160-180.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.511012

[38]   Khodyakov, D., Stockdale, S, Jones, F., Ohito, E., Jones, A., Lizaola, E. and Mango, J. (2011) An Exploration of the Effect of Community Engagement in Research on Perceived Outcomes of Partnered Mental Health Services Projects. Society and Mental Health, 1, 185-199.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2156869311431613

[39]   Newman, I. and Benz, C. (1998) Qualitative-Quantitative Research Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum.

[40]   Government of Kenya (2009) Kenya National Census. Government Printer, Nairobi.

[41]   Nicholson, C.F., Thornton, P.K., Mohammed, L., Muinga, R.W., Mwamachi, D.M., Elbasha, E.H., Staal, S.J. and Thorpe, W. (1999) Smallholder Dairy Technology in Coastal Kenya. An Adoption and Impact Study. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, 68 p.

[42]   Ross, C., Lawrence, C. and Thomas, P. (2002) Air University Sampling and Surveying Handbook: Guidelines for Planning, Organizing, and Conducting Surveys. University Press of the Pacific, Hawaii.

[43]   HMP Operational Manual (2015) Kenya Coast Development Project-KCDP, Hazina ya Maendeleo ya Pwani-HMP Operational Manual Issue 02 Revision 03.

[44]   Versleijen, N. and Hoorweg, J. (2008) From Farming to Fishing: Marine Resource Conservation and a New Generation of Fishermen. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, 7, 1-14.

[45]   Musabayane, N. (2000) Management of Rural Drinking Water Supplies and Waste Using the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) Initiative in Zimbabwe. Schriftenr Ver Wasser Boden Lufthyg, 105, 81-87.

[46]   Omotesho, K.F., Ogunlade, I., Lawal, M.A. and Kehind, F.B. (2016) Determinants of Level of Participation of Farmers in Group Activities in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Gaziosmanpasa University, 33, 21-27. http://Ziraatdergi.Gop.Edu.Tr/

[47]   Mubyazi, G.M. and Hutton, G. (2012) Rhetoric and Reality of Community Participation in Health Planning, Resource Allocation and Service Delivery: A Review of the Reviews, Primary Publications and Grey Literature.

[48]   Kapiriri, L., Norheim, O.F. and Heggenhougen, K. (2003) Public Participation in Health Planning and Priority Setting at the District Level in Uganda. Health Policy Plan, 18, 205-213.
https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czg025

[49]   Mwenda, A. (2010) Devolution in Kenya: Prospects, Challenges and Future. Institute of Economic Affairs, IEA Research Paper Series 24, Nairobi, 8-13.

[50]   Mboga, H. (2009) Understanding the Local Government System in Kenya: A Citizens Handbook. IEA-Kenya, Nairobi.

[51]   Kakumba, U. and Nsingo, S. (2008) Citizen Participation in Local Government and the Process of Rural Development: The Rhetoric and Reality of Uganda. Journal of Public Administration, 43, 107-123.

[52]   Davis, R. (2005) Community Involvement in Government Resource Allocation and Decisions. Paper Presented to the Social Change in the 21st Century Conference, Centre for Social Change Technology, Queensland University, Brisbane.

[53]   Oyugi, L.N. and Kibua, T.N. (2006) Planning and Budgeting at the Grassroots Level: The Case of Local Authority Service Delivery Action Plans. In: Kibua, T.N. and Mwabu, G., Eds., Decentralization and Devolution in Kenya: New Approaches, University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi, 199-233.

[54]   Blackman, R. (2003) Project Cycle Management Tearfund. Teddington.

[55]   Maraga, J.N. and Kibwage, J.K. and Oindo, O.B. (2010) Factors Determining Community Participation in Afforestation Projects in River Nyando Basin, Kenya. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 853-859.

[56]   Ojwang, O.W. and Bwisa, M.H. (2014) Role of Participatory Management in the Sustainability of Constituency Development Fund Projects: A Case Study of Maragua Constituency. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4, 108-127.

 
 
Top