JEAS  Vol.8 No.4 , December 2018
Review: Low Cost, Environmentally Friendly Humic Acid Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles (HA-MNP) and Its Application for the Remediation of Phosphate from Aqueous Media
Abstract: Phosphate is a primary nutrient required for the normal functioning of many organisms in the ecosystem. However, presence of excess phosphate into the aquatic systems leads to eutrophication which can promote harmful algal growth and decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in water. Municipal, industrial and agricultural run-off wastewaters are the major point sources for phosphate discharges. There are different methods to remove phosphates from water. Among these, adsorption is the most widely accepted method for phosphate removal because of its high efficiency, minimum cost, easy and simple operation and applicability at lower concentrations. The emphasis of this review, is to consolidate low cost, environmentally friendly humic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles (HA-MNP) and its application for the remediation of phosphate from aqueous media. The magnetic nanoparticles could be easily separated from the reaction mixture by using a simple hand held magnet and adsorption studies demonstrate the fast and effective separation of phosphate with maximum removal efficiency > 90% at pH 6.6. The adsorption behavior follows the Freundlich isotherm and the removal of phosphate is found higher at acidic and neutral pH compared to basic conditions. The nanoparticles exhibit good selectivity and adsorption efficiency for phosphate in the presence of co-existing ions such as Cl-,  and  with some inhibition effect by  and finally, the effect of temperature on the adsorption reveals that the process is endothermic and spontaneous.
Cite this paper: Damena, T. and Alansi, T. (2018) Review: Low Cost, Environmentally Friendly Humic Acid Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles (HA-MNP) and Its Application for the Remediation of Phosphate from Aqueous Media. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 8, 256-279. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2018.84013.

[1]   Adva, Z.M., Raphael, S. and Hilla, S. (2011) Adsorption-Desorption Mechanism of Phosphate by Immobilized Nano-Sized Magnetite Layer: Interface and Bulk Interactions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 363, 608-614.

[2]   Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, 2000.

[3]   Ye, Y.Y., Ngo, H.N., Guo, W.S., Liu, Y.W., Li, J.X., Liu, L., Zhang, X.B. and Jia, H. (2017) Insight into Chemical Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater. Science of the Total Environment, 576, 159-171.

[4]   USEPA (2000) Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual, Office of Science and Technology, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.

[5]   Li, N., Tian, Y., Zhao, J.H., Zhan, W., Du, J.Y., Kong, L.C. and Zhang, J. (2018) Ultrafast Selective Capture of Phosphorus from Sewage by 3D Fe3O4@ZnO via Weak Magnetic Field Enhanced Adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 341, 289-297.

[6]   Lukas, E., Helmut, R. and Matthias, Z. (2015) Overview and Description of Technologies for Recovering Phosphorus from Municipal Wastewater. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 105, 325-346.

[7]   Liu, T., Chen, X., Wang, X., Zheng, S.R. and Yang, L.Y. (2018) Highly Effective Wastewater Phosphorus Removal by Phosphorus Accumulating Organism Combined with Magnetic Sorbent Magnetic Fe3O4 Core-Shell(MFC)@La(OH)3. Chemical Engineering Journal, 335, 443-449.

[8]   Wang, Z., Xing, M.C., Fang, W.K. and Wu, D.Y. (2016) One-Step Synthesis of Magnetite Core/Zirconia Shell Nanocomposite for High Efficiency Removal of Phosphate from Water. Applied Surface Science, 366, 67-77.

[9]   Gu, W., Li, X.D., Xing, M.C., Fang, W.K. and Wu, D.Y. (2018) Removal of Phosphate from Water by Amine-Functionalized Copper Ferrite Chelated with La(III). Science of the Total Environment, 619-620, 42-48.

[10]   Chris, P., Simon, P., Ana, S. and Ben, M. (2012) Biologically and Chemically Mediated Adsorption and Precipitation of Phosphorus from Wastewater. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23, 890-896.

[11]   Oehmen, A., Lemos, P.C., Carvalho, G., Yuan, Z., Keller, J., Blackall, L.L. and Reis, M.A. (2007) Advances in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: From Micro to Macro Scale. Water Research, 41, 2271-2300.

[12]   De-Bashan, L.E. and Bashan, Y. (2004) Recent Advances in Removing Phosphorus from Waste Water and Its Future Use as Fertilizer. Water Research, 38, 4222-4246.

[13]   Kumar, M., Badruzzaman, M., Adham, S. and Oppenheimer, J. (2007) Beneficial Phosphate Recovery from Reverse Osmosis (RO) Concentrates of an Integrated Membrane System Using Polymeric Ligand Exchanger (PLE). Water Research, 41, 2211-2219.

[14]   Rodrigues, L.A. and da Silva, M.L. (2009) An Investigation of Phosphate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution onto Hydrous Niobium Oxide Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method. Colloids and Surfaces A, 334, 191-196.

[15]   Peleka, E.N. and Deliyanni, E.A. (2009) Adsorptive Removal of Phosphates from Aqueous Solutions. Desalination, 245, 357-371.

[16]   Mahmud, H.N., Huq, A.K. and Yahya, R.B. (2016) The Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater/Aqueous Solution Using Polypyrrole-Based Adsorbents. RSC Advances, 6, 14778-14791.

[17]   Vunain, E., Mishra, A.K. and Mamba, B.B. (2016) Dendrimers, Mesoporous Silica and Chitosan-Based Nanosorbents for the Removal of Heavy-Metal Ions. A Review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 86, 570-586.

[18]   Yu, J.G., Yue, B.Y., Wu, X.W., Liu, Q., Jiao, F.P., Jiang, X.Y. and Chen, X.Q. (2016) Removal of Mercury by Adsorption: A Review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 23, 5056-5076.

[19]   Weiya, H., Yuanming, Z. and Dan, L. (2017) A Review on Adsorptive Removal of Rhosphate from Water Using Mesoporous Materials. Journal of Environmental Management, 193, 470-482.

[20]   Xiong, W., Tong, J., Yang, Z., Zeng, G., Zhou, Y., Wang, D., Song, P., Xu, R., Zhang, C. and Cheng, M. (2017) Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Iron-Zirconium Modified Activated Carbon Nanofiber: Performance and Mechanism. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 493, 17-23.

[21]   Yoon, S.-Y., et al. (2014) Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies for Phosphate Adsorption to Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Journal of Chemical Engineering, 236, 341-347.

[22]   Gu, W., Xie, Q., Xing, M. and Wu, D. (2017) Enhanced Adsorption of Phosphate onto Zinc Ferrite by Incorporating Cerium. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 117, 706-714.

[23]   Tu, Y.-J. and You, C.-F. (2014) Phosphorus Adsorption onto Green Synthesized Nano-Bimetal Ferrites: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Investigation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 251, 285-292.

[24]   Wang, W., Zhou, J., Wei, D., Wan, H., Zheng, S., Xu, Z. and Zhu, D. (2013) ZrO2-Functionalized Magnetic Mesoporous SiO2 as Effective Phosphate Adsorbent. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 407, 442-449.

[25]   Xin, X., Wei, Q., Yang, J., Yan, L., Feng, R., Chen, G., Du, B. and Li, H. (2012) Highly Efficient Removal of Heavy Metal Ions by Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Fe3O4 Nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 184, 132-140.

[26]   Zou, Z.Y., Shi, Z. and Deng, L. (2017) Highly Efficient Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution Using A Novel Magnetic EDTA Functionalized CoFe2O4. RSC Advances, 7, 5195-5205.

[27]   Xie, J., Lin, Y., Li, C., Wu, D. and Kong, H. (2015) Removal and Recovery of Phosphate from Water by Activated Aluminum Oxide and Lanthanum Oxide. Powder Technology, 269, 351-357.

[28]   Diego, C., Karin, F., Laura, M., Fabrizio, S. and Gianni, T. (2016) Eutrophication Management in Surface Waters Using Lanthanum Modified Bentonite: A Review. Water Research, 97, 162-174.

[29]   Jianyong, L., Lihua, W., Ling, Z. and Qi, Z. (2011) Effect of pH, Ionic Strength, and Temperature on the Phosphate Adsorption onto Lanthanum-Doped Activated Carbon Fiber. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 364, 490-496.

[30]   Maity, D. and Agrawal, D.C. (2007) Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles under Oxidizing Environment and Their Stabilization in Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Media. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 308, 46-55.

[31]   Almeelbi, T. and Bezbaruah, A. (2012) Aqueous Phosphate Removal Using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14, Article ID: 900.

[32]   Zhang, G., Liu, H., Liu, R. and Qu, J. (2009) Removal of Phosphate from Water by Fe-Mn Binary Oxide Adsorbent. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 335, 168-174.

[33]   Tang, W.-W., Zeng, G.-M., Gong, J.-L., Liang, J., Xu, P., Zhang, C. and Huang, B.-B. (2014) Impact of Humic/Fulvic Acid on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions Using Nanomaterials: A Review. Science of the Total Environment, 468-469, 1014-1027.

[34]   Li, L., Qiang, X., Lina, C., Wei, G. and Deyi, W. (2016) Adsorption of Phosphate from Water by Easily Separable Fe3O4 at SiO2 Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles Functionalized with Hydrous Lanthanum Oxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 465, 76-82.

[35]   Tu, Y.-J., You, C.-F., Chang, C.-K. and Chen, M.-H. (2015) Application of Magnetic Nano-Particles for Phosphorus Removal/Recovery in Aqueous Solution. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 46, 148-154.

[36]   Tombacz, E., Toth, I.Y., Nesztor, D., Illes, E., Hajdu, A., Szekeres, M. and Vekas, L. (2013) Adsorption of Organic Acids on Magnetite Nanoparticles, pH-Dependent Colloidal Stability and Salt Tolerance. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 435, 91-96.

[37]   Martina, K. and Marcela, P. (2017) Lignitic Humic Acids as Environmentally-Friendly Adsorbent for Heavy Metals. Journal of Chemistry, 2017, Article ID: 7169019.

[38]   Patrycja, B., Valeria, D. and Zofia, S. (2016) Effects of Selected Chemical and Physicochemical Properties of Humic Acids from Peat Soils on Their Interaction Mechanisms with Copper Ions at Various pHs. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 168, 119-126.

[39]   Nicole, D.D., Hongmei, C., Derek, W. and Patrick, G.H. (2016) Potential Origin and Formation for Molecular Components of Humic Acids in Soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 178, 210-222.

[40]   Bruna, A., Gomes D.M., Fernanda, L.M. and Maria, H.A. (2016) Humic Acids: Structural Properties and Multiple Functionalities for Novel Technological Developments. Materials Science and Engineering, 62, 967-974.

[41]   Soerja, K., Sri, J.S., Dwi, S. and Bambang, R. (2015) Synthesis and Characterizatation of Magnetite Nanoparticle Coated Humic Acid (Fe3O4/HA). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30, 103-108.

[42]   Luciano, C., Mariano, C., Delia, B., Soria, M., Sergio, M., Peter, R., Ogilby Fernando, S., Garcia, E. and Daniel, O. (2012) Effect of Humic Acid Binding to Magnetite Nanoparticles on the Photogeneration of Reactive Oxygen Species. Separation and Purification Technology, 91, 23-29.

[43]   Peng, L., et al. (2012) Modifying Fe3O4 Nanoparticles with Humic Acid for Removal of Rhodamine B in Water. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 209-210, 193-198.

[44]   Jiang, W., et al. (2014) Cr (VI) Adsorption and Reduction by Humic Acid Coated on Magnetite. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 8078-8085.

[45]   Mamun, R., Nathaniel, T., Price, M., Angel, G.P. and Kevin, E.O. (2017) Effective Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Humic Acid Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles. Water Research, 123, 353-360.

[46]   Sophie, L., Delphine, F., Marc, P., Alain, R., Caroline, R., Luce, V.E. and Robert, N.M. (2008) Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Stabilization, Vectorization, Physicochemical Characterizations and Biological Applications. Chemical Reviews, 108, 2064-2110.

[47]   Schwarzer, H.C. and Peukert, W. (2004) Tailoring Particle Size through Nanoparticle Precipitation. Chemical Engineering Communications, 19, 580-606.

[48]   Jolivet, J.P., Chaneac, C. and Tronc, E. (2004) Iron Oxide Chemistry: From Molecular Clusters to Extended Solid Networks. Chemical Communications, 10, 481-487.

[49]   Pileni, M.P. and Duxin, N. (2000) Micelle Technology for Magnetic Nanosized Alloys and Composites. Chemical Innovation, 30, 25-33.

[50]   Luciano, C., Fernando, S., Garcia, E. and Monica, C. (2013) Applications of Magnetite Nanoparticles for Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater. 1-10.

[51]   Jeongyun, C., Jinwook, C., Wonhee, L. and Jong, K. (2016) Phosphorous Adsorption on Synthesized Magnetite in Wastewater. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 34, 198-203.

[52]   Tombacz, E., Horvat, M. and Illes, E. (2006) Magnetite in Aqueous Medium Coating Its Surface and Surface Coated with It. Romanian Reports in Physics, 58, 281-286.

[53]   Illes, E. and Tombacz, E. (2004) The Role of Variable Surface Charge and Surface Complexation in the Adsorption of Humic Acid on Magnetite. Colloids and Surfaces, 203, 99-109.

[54]   Illes, E. and Tombacz, E. (2006) The Effect of Humic Acids Adsorption on pH-Dependent Surface Charging and Aggregation of Magnetic Nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces, 295, 115-123.

[55]   Petcharoen, K. and Sirivat, A. (2012) Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanoparticles via the Chemical Co-Precipitation Method. Materials Science and Engineering, 177, 421-427.

[56]   Xie, F., Wu, F., Liu, G., Mu, Y., Feng, C., Wang, H. and Giesy, J.P. (2014) Removal of Phosphate from Eutrophic Lakes through Adsorption by In-Situ Formation of Magnesium Hydroxide from Diatomite. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 582-590.

[57]   Tahir, S.S. and Rauf, N. (2006) Removal of a Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Bentonite Clay. Chemosphere, 63, 1842-1848.

[58]   Yantasee, C.L., Warner, T., Sangvanich, R.S., Addleman, T.G., Carter, R.J., Wiacek, G.E., Fryxell, C. and Timchalk, M.G. (2007) Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 5114-5119.

[59]   Liu, J.-F., Zhao, Z.-S. and Jiang, G.-B. (2008) Coating Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles with Humic Acid for High Efficient Removal of Heavy Metals in Water. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 6949-6954.

[60]   Gucek, A., Bilgen, S. and Mazmanci, M.A. (2005) Adsorption and Kinetic Studies of Cationic and Anionic Dyes on Pyrophyllite from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 286, 53-60.

[61]   Yeojoon, Y., Wonkyu, P., Tae-Mun, H., Dae, H.Y. and WooSeok, J.K. (2016) Comparative Evaluation of Magnetite-Graphene Oxide and Magnetite-Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite for As(III) and As(V) Removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 304, 196-204.

[62]   Chen, R., Zhi, C., Yang, H., Bando, Y., Zhang, Z., Sugiur, N. and Golberg, D. (2011) Arsenic (V) Adsorption on Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Coated Boron Nitride Nanotubes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 359, 261-268.

[63]   Ding, H., Zhao, Y., Duan, Q., Wang, J., Zhang, K., Ding, G., Xie, X. and Ding, C. (2017) Efficient Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Novel Magnetic Nanocomposites with Fe3O4@SiO2 Core and Mesoporous CeO2 Shell. Journal of Rare Earths, 35, 984.

[64]   Singh, S., Barick, K.C. and Bahadur, D. (2011) Surface Engineered Magnetic Nanoparticles for Removal of Toxic Metal Ions and Bacterial Pathogens. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192, 1539-1547.

[65]   Liu, J.F., Zhao, Z.S. and Jiang, G.B. (2008) Coating Fe3O4 Nanoparticle with Humic Acidfor High Efficient Removal of Heavy Metal in Water. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 6949-6954.

[66]   Badruddoza, A.Z., Tay, A.S., Tan, P.Y., Hidajat, K. and Uddin, M.S. (2011) Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Nano-Adsorbents for Removal of Copper Ions: Synthesis and Adsorption Studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 1177-1186.

[67]   Goon, I.Y., Zhang, C., Lim, M. and Gooding, J.J. (2010) Controlled Fabrication of Polyethylenimine-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Sequestration and Quantification of Free Cu2+. Langmuir, 26, 12247-12252.

[68]   Chou, C.M. and Lien, H.L. (2011) Dendrimer-Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Removal of Zinc (II) from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13, 2099-2107.

[69]   Wang, J., Zheng, S., Shao, Y., Liu, J., Xu, Z. and Zhu, D. (2010) Amino-Functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 Core-Shell Magnetic Nanomaterial as a Novel Adsorbent for Aqueous Heavy Metals Removal. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 349, 293-299.

[70]   Wu, Y., Zhang, J., Tong, Y. and Xu, X. (2009) Chromium (VI) Reduction in Aqueous Solutions by Fe3O4-Stabilized Fe0 Nanoparticles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172, 1640-1645.

[71]   Cutting, R.S., Coker, V.S., Telling, N.D., Kimber, R.L., Pearce, C.I., Ellis, B.L., Lawson, R.S, Van GerritLaan, D.E.R., Pattrick, R.A.D., Vaughan, D.J., Arenholz, E. and Lloyd, J.R. (2010) Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) Remediation through Nanoscale Biomineral Engineering. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 2577-2584.

[72]   Wang, Y., Morin, G., Ona-Nguema, G., Juillot, F., Calas, G. and Brown, G.E. (2011) Distinctive Arsenic (V) Trapping Modes by Magnetite Nanoparticles Induced by Different Sorption Processes. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 7258-7266.

[73]   Chowdhury, S.R. and Yanful, E.K. (2010) Arsenic and Chromium Removal by Mixed Magnetite-Maghemite Nanoparticles and the Effect of Phosphate on Removal. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 2238-2247.

[74]   Yang, W., Kan, A.T., Chen, W. and Tomson, M.B. (2010) pH-Dependent Effect of Zinc on Arsenic Adsorption to Magnetite Nanoparticles. Water Research, 44, 5693-5701.

[75]   Zhang, M., Pan, G., Zhao, D. and He, G. (2011) XAFS Study of Starch-Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles and Surface Speciation of Arsenate. Environmental Pollution, 159, 3509-3514.

[76]   Murray, B. and Mcbride (1994) Environmental Chemistry of Soils. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 346-352.