GEP  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2018
Remote Sensing Assessment of Ecological Effects of Marine Ranching in the Eastern Guangdong Waters, China
Abstract: This study aims to assess ecological effects of the construction of marine ranching in the eastern Guangdong waters. Variations in sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a), catch per unit effort (CPUE), biodiversity, biomass and density of benthos were compared during the pre- (August in 2011) and post- (August in 2013) marine ranching. These were based on satellite remote sensing and survey data. Results showed that the ratio of Nitrogen (N): Phosphorus (P) was closed to 16, Chl-a increased from 7.5 - 12.3 mg·m-3 to 10.4 - 16.2 mg·m-3, and CPUE increased from 2.1 - 5.5 kg·h-1 to 5.8 - 14.5 kg·h-1. The species number of fish, crustaceans, cephalopods and shellfish increased by 25, 3, 2 and 3 respectively. Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index of fish, crustaceans, cephalopods and shellfish increased by 0.5, 0.4, 0.1 and 1.0 respectively. Both biomass and density of benthos increased also. The construction of marine ranching in the eastern Guangdong had restored the habitat to some extent, and played positive effects in the conservation and proliferation of fishery resources in local area.
Cite this paper: Wang, Y. , Yu, J. and Chen, P. (2018) Remote Sensing Assessment of Ecological Effects of Marine Ranching in the Eastern Guangdong Waters, China. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 101-113. doi: 10.4236/gep.2018.612007.

[1]   Becker, A., Taylor, M. D., & Lowry, M. B. (2017). Monitoring of Reef Associated and Pelagic Fish Communities on Australia’s First Purpose Built Offshore Artificial Reef. Ices Journal Marine Science, 74, fsw133.

[2]   Cai, L. P., Jin, J. L., & Wu, Y. Z. (2018). Research and Investigation of Benthic in Zhoushan Nearby Sea during the Summer of 2016. Ocean Development and Management, 35, 82-87.

[3]   Charbonnel, E., Serre, C., Ruitton, S., & Harmelin, J. G. (2002). Effects of Increased Habitat Complexity on Fish Assemblages Associated with Large Artificial Reef Units (French Mediterranean Coast). American Political Science Review, 70, 208-213.

[4]   Chen, C., Jiao, H. F., Wang, Y. N., & Liu, D. (2016). Temporal and Spatial Changes of Macrobenthos in Marine Pasture Demonstration Area in Xiangshan Bay. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 47, 130-139.

[5]   Chen, J. F., Zhao, J., Sun, Y., & Fang, J. G. (2007). Dynamic Mechanism of Sediment Resuspension with Its Effects on Content of Nutrients in Water in the Shellfish Culture Area of Sanggou Bay. Marine Fishery Research, 28, 105-111.

[6]   Chen, P. M., Yuan, H. R., Jia, X. P., Qin, C. X., Cai, W. G., Yu, J. et al. (2013). Changes in Fishery Resources of Yangmeikeng Artificial Reef Area in Daya Bay. South China Fisheries Science, 9, 100-108.

[7]   Chen, T. (2014). Variation of Artificial Reef Construction of Marine Ranching in Xiangshan Bay Based on Zooplankton Community. Shanghai: Shanghai Ocean University.

[8]   Chen, Y., Tian, T., Yin, Z. Q., Liu, Y. H., Chen, L., & Wang, G. (2014). A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Ecological Rehabilitation in the Marine Ranching Demonstration Area in Zhangzi Island. Symposium on Restoration of Aquatic Environment, Shanghai, 10, 22-32.

[9]   Chen, Y., Yang, J., Tian, T., Liu, Y. H., Yin, Z. Q., Chen, L., & Wang, G. (2014). The Enhancement Effect of Fishery Resources on Artificial Reefs in Marine Ranching Area in Zhangzi Island. Journal of Dalian Ocean University, 29, 183-187.

[10]   Cui, Y., Guan, C. T., Wan, R., Li, J., & Huang, B. (2009). Research and Numerical Simulation on Features of Flow Field around Artificial Reefs. Journal of System Simulation, 21, 7393-7396.

[11]   Fu, Y. J. (2014). The Growth Chracteristcs of Mytilus edulis Linnaeu in Guoqi Island and Its Effect on the Water Quality. Zhoushan: Zhejiang Ocean University.

[12]   Hilborn, R., & Walters, C. J. (1992). Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment (pp. 177-178). London: Chapman and Hall.

[13]   Hu, K. W., Xu, L. X., Chen, X. J., Zhu, G. P., & Wang, X. F. (2012). Application of Ocean Remote Sensing on Fishing Ground Analysis: A Review. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 18, 1079-1088.

[14]   Huang, C. J., Dong, Q. X., Wu, C. W., Wang, Z. X., & Zhou, K. (2005). Spatial Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll A in the Zhelin Bay—A Large Scale Maricultural Area. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 27, 127-134.

[15]   Huang, H., Li, D. P., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, S. (2017). Effects of Artificial Reefs Deploymenton Nutrients in the Marine Farming Zone of Haizhou Bay. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 37, 2854-2861.

[16]   Jiang, Z. Y., Liang, Z. L., Zhu, L. X., & Liu, Y. (2016). Numerical Simulation of Effect of Guide Plate on Flow Field of Artificial Reef. Ocean Engineering, 116, 236-241.

[17]   Li, C. H., Jia, X. P., Qi, Z. H., Liu, Y., Chen, P. M., Xu, S. N. et al. (2011). Effect Evaluation of a Low-Carbon Fisheries Production by Marine Ranching in Daya Bay. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 30, 2346-2352.

[18]   Liao, X. L., Chen, P. M., Ma, S. W., & Chen, H. G. (2013). Community Structure of Phytoplankton and Its Relationship with Environmental Factors before and after Construction of Artificial Reefs in Yangmeikeng, Daya Bay. South China Fisheries Science, 9, 109-119.

[19]   Liu, W., Li, N. J., & Li, J. (2008). Preliminary Analysis on the State of Water and Europhication in the Funing Bay. Marine Science Bullentin, 27, 111-115.

[20]   Liu, Y., Zhao, Y. P., Dong, G. H., Guan, C. T., Cui, Y., & Xu, T. J. (2013). A Study of the Flow Field Characteristics around Star-Shaped Artificial Reefs. Journal of Fluids & Structures, 39, 27-40.

[21]   Liu, Z. L., Cai, Y. M., & Ning, X. R. (1998). The Distribution of Chlorophyll a and Primary Productivity in the Middle and West of Xiangshan Bay. Donghai Marine Science, 16, 18-24.

[22]   Menendez, M. (2005). Effect of Nutrient Pulses on Photosynthesis of Chaetomorpha linum, from a Shallow Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon. Aquatic Botany, 3, 181-192.

[23]   Nakamura, Y., & Kerciku, F. (2000). Effects of Filter-Feeding Bivalves on the Distribution of Water Quality and Nutrient Cycling in a Eutrophic Lagoon. Journal of Marine System, 26, 209-221.

[24]   Parzen, E. (1962). On Estimation of a Probability Density Function and Mode. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 33, 1065-1076.

[25]   Peng, X., Ma, S. W., Chen, H. G., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Y. B., & Cai, W. G. (2014). Spatial Distribution and Assessment of Nutrients in Marine Ranching in Zhelin Bay-Nanao Island in Summer. South China Fisheries Science, 10, 27-35.

[26]   Shentu, J. K., Lin, X., Zhao, Y. B., & Xu, Y. J. (2017). Effect of Bivalve on Meiofauna in the Shrimp Culture Pond. Journal of Fisheries of China, 41, 1434-1442.

[27]   Shu, L. M., Chen, P. M., Li, X. G., Qin, C. X., Yu, J., Zhou, Y. B., & Yuan, H. R. (2015). Macrobenthic Species Diversity in the Waters Surrounding Zhelin Bay. Journal of Fishery Science of China, 22, 501-516.

[28]   Shu, L. M., Chen, P. M., Li, X. G., Yu, J., & Feng, X. (2015). Species Composition and Seasonal Variation of Macrobenthic Fauna in Zhelin Bay and Adjacent Waters. Journal of Applied Oceanography, 34, 124-132.

[29]   Shu, L. M., Chen, P. M., Qin, C. X., Li, X. G., Zhou, Y. B., Feng, X. et al. (2016). Species Composition and Dominant Species of Macrobenthic Fauna in Intertidal Zone of Zhelin Bay-Nanao Island in Winter and Summer. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35, 423-430.

[30]   Song, W., Dong, Q., & Xue, C. (2016). A Classified El Niño Index Using AVHRR Remote-Sensing SST Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37, 403-417.

[31]   Sun, P. X., Wang, B., Zhang, Z. H., Wang, Z. L., & Xia, B. (2006). Relationship between Nutrient Distributions and Eutrophication in Seawater of the Laizhou Bay. South China Fisheries Science, 24, 329-335.

[32]   Wang, F. F., Zhang, S. Y., & Lin, J. (2013). Study of Chlorophyll a Distribution in Marine Ranching Planning Area of Xiangshan Bay. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University, 22, 266-273.

[33]   Wang, Z. Q. (1999). Application of Geostatistics in Ecology (pp. 35-82). Beijing: Science Press.

[34]   Wilson, J., & Sheaves, M. (2001). Short-Term Temporal Variations in Taxonomic Composition and Trophic Structure of a Tropical Estuarine Fish Assemblage. Marine Biology, 139, 787-796.

[35]   Yu, J., Chen, P. M., & Zhao, M. (2014). Satellite Remote Sensing Assessment of Ecological Effects of Artificial Reefs in Daya Bay, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 64, 269-275.

[36]   Yu, J., Chen, P. M., Tang, D. L., & Qin, C. X. (2015). Ecological Effects of Artificial Reefs in Daya Bay of China Observed from Satellite and in Situ Measurements. Advances in Space Research, 55, 2315-2324.

[37]   Yu, J., Hu, Q. W., Li, C. H., Zhang, P., & Mao, J. M. (2017). Relationship between the Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis Resource and Environmental Factors in the Xisha-Zhongsha Waters in Spring. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 39, 62-73.

[38]   Yu, J., Hu, Q. W., Yuan, H. R., & Chen, P. M. (2018). Effects Assessment of Summer Fishing Moratorium in Daya Bay Based on Remote Sensing Data. South China Fisheries Science, 14, 1-9.

[39]   Yu, J., Tang, D. L., Yao, L. J., Chen, P. M., Jia, X. P., & Li, C. H. (2010). Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay of China Using Satellite and in Situ Observations. Terrestrial Atmospheric & Oceanicences, 21, 393-399.

[40]   Yuan, H. R., Chen, P. M., Qin, C. X., Li, X. G., Zhou, Y. B., Feng, X. et al. (2017). Research on the Seasonal Variations of Fish Community Structure in the Zhelin Bay of the South China Sea. South China Fisheries Science, 13, 26-35.

[41]   Zhang, G. M., Zhu, A. X., Yang, S. T., Qin, C. Z., Xiao, W., & Steven, K. (2013). Mapping Wildlife Habitat Suitability Using Kernel Density Estimation. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33, 7590-7600.

[42]   Zhang, H., Liu, P. T., Tang, J. H., Zhu, K. W., & Zhang, S. (2008). Investigation on the Macrobenthos of Artificial Reefs Area in the Haizhou Gulf. Marine Fisheries, 30, 97-104.

[43]   Zhang, J. H., Fang, J. G., Jiang, Z. J., Wang, W., Wang, S. H., & Sun, S. (2008). Seasonal Variation of Primary Production and Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll a in Mariculture Area of Zhangzidao Island. Marine Fisheries Research, 29, 22-28.

[44]   Zhang, J. H., Gao, Y., Shi, X. J., & Lü, X. L. (2017). Species Composition and Diversity of Marine Organisms from Benthic Trawling in Daya Bay of the Northern South China Sea. Biodiversity Science, 25, 1019-1030.

[45]   Zhang, W., Li, C. H., Jia, X. P., Chen, P. M., & Fang, L. (2009). Canonical Correspondence Analysis between Attaching Organisms and Environmental Factors on Artificial Reef in the Daya Bay. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29, 4053-4060.

[46]   Zhou, Y. B., Chen, P. M., & Li, H. Q. (2011). Feasibility Study on Artificial Reef Construction in Planning Area around Liuniu of Zhelin Bay in Guangdong Province. Guangdong Agricltural Science, 38, 10-14.

[47]   Zou, D. H., & Xia, J. R. (2011). Nutrient Metabolism of Marine Macroalgae and Its Relationship with Coastal Eutrophication: A Review. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 30, 589-595.