Back
 JEP  Vol.9 No.13 , December 2018
Spatial Distribution of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus within Surface Sediments in the Lower Lancang River: Pollution Assessment Related to Dams
Abstract: Surface sediment is one of the main sources of nutrients in overlying water environments, and these can also indirectly reflect the degree of eutrophication. In this paper, the spatial distribution characteristics of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the surface sediments of 11 sections in the lower Lancang River during flood season are analyzed, as well as the distribution of phosphorus in different forms. The main sources of TOC and its correlation with TN and TP are discussed and, finally, the pollution levels of the surface sediments are evaluated. The results show that the average content of TOC in the surface sediments of the lower Lancang River is 9003.75 mg/kg. The average TN content is 893.79 mg/kg, while the average TP content is 521.35 mg/kg. The TOC in the surface sediments of the lower Lancang River is derived mainly from algae and plankton in the river, and the TN and TP have similar sources. The total phosphorus in the surface sediments of the lower Lancang River is composed mainly of calcium-bound phosphorus (Ca-P). The evaluations of the organic pollution index and comprehensive pollution index show that the surface sediment pollution degree at the upper sections of the Nuozhadu and Jinghong Dams are more serious than those below the dams. Furthermore, the tributary sections are all slightly polluted, with the exception of the Mengyang River, which is considered moderately polluted.
Cite this paper: Lu, H. , Fu, K. , Dong, T. , Peng, W. , Song, X. , He, B. and Wang, L. (2018) Spatial Distribution of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus within Surface Sediments in the Lower Lancang River: Pollution Assessment Related to Dams. Journal of Environmental Protection, 9, 1343-1358. doi: 10.4236/jep.2018.913083.
References

[1]   Wang, P., Lu, S.Y., Wang, D.W., Xu, M.S., Gan, S. and Jin, X.C. (2012) Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Organic Matter Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Their Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in Lakeside Zones of Taihu Lake. China Environmental Science, 32, 703-709.

[2]   Bostrom, B., Persson, G. and Broberg, B. (1988) Bioavailability of Different Phosphorus Forms in Freshwater Systems. Hydrobiologia, 170, 133-155.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024902

[3]   Yin, A.J., Wu, P.B., Zhou, H.P. and Gao, C. (2015) Forms and Distribution of Phosphorus in Qinhuai River Sediments along an Urbanization Gradient. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 35, 1366-1373.

[4]   Graca, B. and Bolalek, J. (1998) Forms of Phosphorus in Sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk. Applied Geochemistry, 13, 319-327.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(97)00101-7

[5]   Yu, H., Zhang, W.B., Lu, S.Y., Yan, S.W., Hu, R.J., Chen, L., Zhang, L.L. and Yu, J.P. (2010) Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Surface Sediments Nutrients in Lake Hongze and Their Pollution Status Evaluation. Environmental Science, 31, 961-968.

[6]   Chen, L.-H. and He, D.M. (2000) The Ecological Impacts of Hydropower Cascade Development in Lancang-Mekong River. Acta Geographica Sinica, 577-586.

[7]   Fu, K.D., He, D.M., Chen, W., Ye, C.Q. and Li, Y.G. (2007) Impacts of Dam Constructions on the Annual Distribution of Sediment in Lancang-Mekong River Basin. Acta Geographica Sinica, 62, 14-21.

[8]   Ran, X.B., Yu, Z.G., Yao, Q.Z., Chen, H.T., Mi, T.Z., and Yao, P. (2009) Advances in Nutrient Retention of Dams on River. Journal of Lake Sciences, 21, 614-622.
https://doi.org/10.18307/2009.0502

[9]   Lancelot, C., Martin, J.M., Panin, N. and Zaitsev, Y. (2002) The North-Western Black Sea: A Pilot Site to Understand the Complex Interaction between Human Activities and the Coastal Environment. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 54, 279-283.
https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2000.0647

[10]   Zhang, M., Xu, Y.Y., Shao, M.L. and Cai, Q.H. (2009) Spatiotemporal Distribution of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus in Sediments of Xiangxi Bay, Three Gorges Reservoir. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 2799-2805.

[11]   Varol, M. (2013) Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Surface Water and Sediments of a Transboundary River Located in the Semi-Arid Region of Turkey. Catena, 100, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.08.003

[12]   Wang, L.F., Xia, J., Yu, J.J., Yang, L.Y., Zhan, C.S., Qiao, Y.F. and Lu, H.W. (2017) Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China. Water, 9, 444.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060444

[13]   Zhao, C., Dong, S.K., Liu, S.L., Sylvie, I., Li, J.P., Liu, Q. and An, N.N. (2014) Distribution and Environmental Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals and Nutrients in Sediments of Upstream and Downstream of Manwan Dam. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 34, 2417-2425.

[14]   Niu, J.C., Lu, L.X. and Luo, Y.P. (2015) Research on Rock Anchor Beam Excavation Technology of LANCANG river Nuozhadu Hydropower Station Underground Powerhouse in Yunnan Province. Journal of Yellow River Conservancy Technical Institute, 27, 12-16.

[15]   Liu, J.T. (2008) Hydropower Development on Lancang River and Design of the Jinghong Hydropower Station. Water Power, 34, 28-31.

[16]   Bao, S.D. (2000) Soil Agrochemical Analysis. 3rd Edition, China Agriculture Press, Beijing. (In Chinese)

[17]   Sui, G.R. (1996) Statement and Evaluation of Organic Matter, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphate in Surface Layer Sediments in Taihu Lake. Journal of Lake Science, 8, 319-324.
https://doi.org/10.18307/1996.0405

[18]   Yang, Y., Liu, Q.G., Hu, Z.J., Zhang, Y.M. and Gao, Y.X. (2014) Spatial Distribution of Sediment Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Pollution Evaluation of Sediment in Taihu Lake Basin. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 34, 3057-3064.

[19]   Yue, W.Z., Huang, X.P. and Sun, C.C. (2007) Distribution and Pollution of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Surface Sediments from the Pearl River Estuary. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 38, 111-117.

[20]   Volvoikar, S.P., Nayak, G.N., Mazumdar, A. and Peketi, A. (2014) Reconstruction of Depositional Environment of a Tropical Estuary and Response of δ13Corg and TOC/TN Signatures to Changing Environmental Conditions. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 139, 137-147.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.01.001

[21]   Lu, S.Y., Xu, M.S., Jin, X.C., Huang, G.Z. and Hu, W. (2012) Pollution Characteristics and Evaluation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organic Matter in Surface Sediments of Lake Changshouhu in Chongqing, China. Environmental Science, 33, 393-398.

[22]   Kaiserli, A., Voutsa, D. and Samara, C. (2002) Phosphorus Fractionation in Lake Sediments-Lakes Volvi and Koronia, N. Greece. Chemosphere, 46, 1147-1155.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00242-9

[23]   Xu, C.X., Yuan, J., Wang, Y.P., Wang, S.M. and Dai, A.F. (2011) Speciation and Release Mechanism of Phosphorus in Sediments and Analysis Methods for Sequential Extraction. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 30, 785-794.

[24]   Filippelli, G.M. and Delaney, M.L. (1996) Phosphorus Geochemistry of Equatorial Pacific Sediments. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 1479-1495.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(96)00042-7

[25]   Howarth, R. (1998) Forms and Availability of Sediment Phosphorus in Carbonate Sand of Bermuda Seagrass Beds. Limnology and Oceanography, 43, 799-810.
https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1998.43.5.0799

[26]   Li, R.F., Tan, W.B., Gao, R.T., Huang, C.H., Zhang, H. and Li, D. (2018) Distribution Characteristics of Organic Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Sediments of Xiao River. Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology, 8, 241-247.

[27]   Gowan, C., Stephenson, K. and Shabman, L. (2006) The Role of Ecosystem Valuation in Environmental Decision Making: Hydropower Relicensing and Dam Removal on the Elwha River. Ecological Economics, 56, 508-523.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.03.018

[28]   Qian, H.J., Gao, Y., Cao, M., Fu, J.N., Ma, J. and Wang, F.S. (2015) Impacts on Geochemical Phases of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Sediments of Xinanjiang River by River Impounding. Journal of Shanghai University, 21, 72-80.

[29]   Zhou, H.H., Qiu, G.S., Zhai, W.Y., Liu, Y. B. and Lan, J. (2017) Evaluation of Temporal and Spatial Variation Characteristics of Nutrients in Surface Sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Environmental Science, 38, 5020-5031.

[30]   Li, M.Y. (2017) Response of Spatial-Temporal Variation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Reservoir Construction in the Lower Reaches of the Lancang River. Master Dissertation, Yunnan University, Kunming. (In Chinese)

[31]   Zhao, C., Dong, S., Liu, S., An, N., Sylvie, I., Zhao, H., Liu, Q. and Wu, X. (2018) Preliminary Study on the Effect of Cascade Dams on Organic Matter Sources of Sediments in the Middle Langcang-Mekong River. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 18, 297-308.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1790-5

[32]   Zhang, Z., Lv, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Sun, C. and Marhaba, T. (2015) Phosphorus, Organic Matter and Nitrogen Distribution Characteristics of the Surface Sediments in Nansi Lake, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73, 5669-5675.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3821-5

[33]   Liu, Q., Liu, S., Zhao, H., Deng, L., Wang, C., Zhao, Q. and Dong, S. (2015) The Phosphorus Speciations in the Sediments up- and down-Stream of Cascade Dams along the Middle Lancang River. Chemosphere, 120, 653-659.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.012

[34]   Pan, T.T., Zhang, X., Yuan, Z.J., Song, H.Y., Zhu, K.X., Bi, Y.H. and Hu, Z.Y. (2016) Spatio-Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Different Phosphorus Forms in Sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 36, 2968-2973.

 
 
Top