ABB  Vol.2 No.6 , December 2011
Modulation of biological activities produced by an endophytic fungus under different culture conditions
ABSTRACT
The effect of culture conditions on the production of bioactive secondary metabolites by the endophytic fungus Arthrinium State of Apiospora Montagnei Sacc. was investigated. Culture broths were partitioned with ethyl acetate and the resulting extracts were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and antiparasitic activities. The highest levels of activities were arisen from cultures cultivated at 30C in modified Czapek medium. The best antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC 90 μg/ml), and against Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC 130 μg/ml) were found in extracts from cultures grown in medium containing 3.1% (w/v) sucrose and 0.1% (w/v) sodium nitrate at pH 4.0 after 9 days of incubation. Cultures grown in medium without modification also showed antiparasitic and antitumoral activities after 9 days at pH 4.0, antifungal activity against Candida albicans at pH 4.0 - 7.0 (MIC 140 μg/ml), but against A. fumigatus just after 27 days of incubation. A specific bioactive compound may have its production improved if the culture conditions parameters that affect or influence the production were known, which in turn makes the purification process easier.

Cite this paper
nullRamos, H. and Said, S. (2011) Modulation of biological activities produced by an endophytic fungus under different culture conditions. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2, 443-449. doi: 10.4236/abb.2011.26065.
References
[1]   Borges, W.S., Borges, K.B., Bonato, P.S., Said, S. and Pupo, M.T. (2009) Endophytic fungi: Natural products, enzymes and biotransformation reactions. Current Organic Chemistry, 13, 1137-1163. doi:10.2174/138527209788921783

[2]   Newman, D.J. and Cragg, G.M. (2007) Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. Journal of Natural Products, 70, 461-477. doi:10.1021/np068054v

[3]   Strobel, G.A., Daisy, B., Castillo, U. and Harper, J. (2004) Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. Journal of Natural Products, 67, 257-268. doi:10.1021/np030397v

[4]   Demain, A.L. (1999) Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of microorganisms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 52, 455-463. doi:10.1007/s002530051546

[5]   Firáková, S., Sturdíková, M. and Múcková, M. (2007) Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms associated with plants. Biologia (Bratislava), 62, 251-257. doi:10.2478/s11756-007-0044-1

[6]   Bode, H.B., Bethe, B., H?fs, R. and Zeeck, A. (2002) Big effects from small changes: Possible ways to explore nature’s chemical diversity. Biochemistry (Chemical Biology), 3, 619-627. doi:10.1002/1439-7633(20020703)3:7<619::AID-CBIC619>3.0.CO;2-9

[7]   Ramos, H.P., Braun, G.H., Pupo, M.T. and Said S. (2010) Antimicrobial activity from Endophytic fungi Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei Sacc. and Papulaspora immersa. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 53, 629-632. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132010000300017

[8]   Jackson, M., Karwowski, J.P., Humphrey, P.E., Kohl, W.L., Barlow, G.J. and Tanaka, S.K. (1993) Calbistrins, novel antifungal agents produced by Penicillium restrictum. I. Production, taxonomy of the producing organism and biological activity. Journal of Antibiotics, 46, 34-38.

[9]   Alviano, C.S., Farbiarz, S.R., Travassos, L.R., Angluster, J. and Souza, W. (1992) Effect of environmental factors on Fonsecaea pedrosoi morphogenesis with emphasis on sclerotic cells induced by propanol. Mycopathologia, 119, 17-23.

[10]   National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. (2003) Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard NCCLS document M7-A6. NCCLS, Wayne.

[11]   National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. (2002) Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeast; Approved Standard NCCLS document M27-A2. NCCLS, Wayne.

[12]   National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. (2002) Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi. Approved Standard NCCLS document M38-A. NCCLS, Wayne.

[13]   Souza, D.H.F., Garratt, R.C., Araújo, A.P.U., Guimar?es, B.G., Jesus, W.D.P., Michels, P.A.M., Hannaert, V. and Oliva, G. (1998) Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyce-ralehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Structure, catalytic mechanism and targeted inhibitor design. FEBS Letters, 424, 131-135. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00154-9

[14]   Thiemann, O.H., Alfonzo, J.D. and Simpson L. (1998) Cloning and characterization of Leishmania tarentolae adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 95, 141-146. doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(98)00089-9

[15]   Barbosa, V. and Nakano, M. (1987) Muscle D-glyceral- dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Anas sp.—1. Purification and properties of the enzyme. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 88, 563-568. doi:10.1016/0305-0491(87)90345-2

[16]   Tuttle, J.V. and Krenitsky T.A. (1980) Purine Phospho- ribosyltransferases from Leishmania donovani. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 909-916.

[17]   Oliveira, J.S., Bezerra, D.P., Freitas, C.D.T., Marinho- Filho, J.D.B., Moraes, M.O., Pessoa C., Costa-Lotufo, L.V. and Ramos, M.V. (2007) In vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines of laticifer proteins of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Toxicology in Vitro, 21, 1563-1573. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2007.05.007

[18]   Cabello, M.A., Platas, G., Collado, J., Díez, M.T., Martín, I., Vicente, F., Meinz, M., Onishi, J.C., Douglas, C., Thompson, J., et al. (2001) Arundifungin, a novel antifungal compound produced by fungi: Biological activity and taxonomy of the producing organisms. International Microbiology, 4, 93-102.

[19]   Klemke, C., Kehraus, S., Wright, A.D. and K?nig, G.M. (2004) New Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Endophytic Fungus Apiospora montagnei. Journal of Natural Products, 67, 1058-1063. doi:10.1021/np034061x

[20]   Kohno, J., Koguchi, Y., Nishio, M., Nakao, K., Kuroda, M., Shimizu, R., Ohnuki, T. and Komatsubara, S. (2000) Structures of TMC-95A-D: Novel Proteasome Inhibitors from Apiospora montagnei Sacc. TC 1093. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 65, 990-995. doi:10.1021/jo991375

[21]   Alfatafta, A.A., Gloer, J.B., Scott, J.A. and Malloch, D. (1994) Apiosporamide, a new antifungal agent from the coprophilus fungus Apiospora montagnei. Journal of Natural Products, 57, 1696-1702. doi:10.1021/np50114a012

[22]   Rosa, L.H., Gon?alves, V.N., Caligiorne, R.B., Alves, T.M.A., Rabello, A., Sales, P.A., Romanha A.J., Sobral, M.E.G., Rosa, C.A. and Zani, C.L. (2010) Leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities of endophytic fungi associated with bioactive plants in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 420-430. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822010000200024

[23]   Sanchez, S. and Demain, A.L. (2002) Metabolic regulation of fermentation processes. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 31, 895-906. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(02)00172-2

[24]   Miao, L., Kwong, T.F.N. and Qian, P.Y. (2006) Effect of culture conditions on mycelial growth, antibacterial activity, and metabolite profiles of the marine-derived fungus Arthrinium c.f. saccharicola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 72, 1063-1073. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0376-8

[25]   Freitas, T.P.S., Furtado, N.A.J.C., Bastos, J.K. and Said, S. (2002) Active substances against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and microorganisms are produced in sequence by Talaromyces flavus. Microbiological Research, 157, 201-206. doi:10.1078/0944-5013-00148

[26]   Seymour, A.F., Cresswell, J.E., Fisher, P.J., Lappin-Scott, H.M., Haag, H. and Talbot, N.J. (2004) The influence of genotypic variation on metabolite diversity in populations of two endophytic fungal species. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 41, 721-734. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2004.02.007

 
 
Top