Back
 AJPS  Vol.9 No.13 , December 2018
Tomato-Aphid Interactions in Plants Grown on Soil with Biochar
Abstract: Plants are affected by various types of stress. The resistance or the susceptibility of plants to stress depends on the mutual characteristics of the plant and the stress. The plant can counteract the stress through the expression of specific genes, through changes in metabolism or through quantitative and qualitative variations of gene expression. Biotic stress is due to the action of viruses, bacteria and small insects and it is the cause of most of the reduction in crop yield. Biochar is a fine-grained vegetable carbon that is obtained from the pyrolysis of different types of plant biomass, and, if added to the soil, it can improve soil characteristics and at the same time it can reduce carbon emissions. Biochar also appears to have an unclear role in the activation of systemic resistance responses to pathogens. Biochar has a carbon content of about 90%; its high porosity increases the retention of water and nutrients by reducing the need for water and fertilizers and increasing agricultural yield. Aphids are one of the major sources of biotic stress for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a crop of significant agro-food and socio-economic importance, especially in the Mediterranean area and in southern Italy. In this study, we first evaluated, through a proteomic analysis, the differential protein expression of tomato leaves infected by aphid and grown on control soils and on biochar-modified soil. The results of the proteomic analysis showed a differential expression mainly in the proteins involved in stress and defense, so we decided to deepen this aspect through a molecular analysis. A Real-time PCR of some fundamental genes involved in the Jasmonic acid pathway was made because, although it is clear that aphid infection activates the salicylic acid pathway, we have less data in literature about the resulting tissue damage involves Jasmonic Acid (JA). The regulation of jasmonic acid after phytophagous insects attack is particularly important for the plant’s ability to initiate promptly to the defense responses.
Cite this paper: Tartaglia, M. , Esposito, F. , Izzo, F. and Rocco, M. (2018) Tomato-Aphid Interactions in Plants Grown on Soil with Biochar. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 2555-2566. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.913185.
References

[1]   Ghini, R., Hamada, E., Angelotti, F., Costa, L.B. and Bettiol, W. (2012) Research Approaches, Adaptation Strategies, and Knowledge Gaps concerning the Impacts of Climate Change on Plant Diseases. Tropical Plant Pathology, 37, 5-24.

[2]   Crowl, T.A., Crist, T.O., Parmenter, R.R., Belovsky, G. and Lugo, A.E. (2008) The Spread of Invasive Species and Infectious Disease as Drivers of Ecosystem Change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 238-246.
https://doi.org/10.1890/070151

[3]   Coppola, V., Coppola, M., Rocco, M., Digilio, M.C., D’Ambrosio, C., Renzone, G., Martinelli, R., Scaloni, A., Pennacchio, F., Rao, R. and Corrado, G. (2013) Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Acompatible Tomato-Aphid Interaction Reveals a Predominant Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Response. BMC Genomics, 14, 515.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-515

[4]   Guerrieri, E. and Digilio, M.C. (2008) Aphid-Plant Interactions: A Review. Journal of Plant Interactions, 3, 223-232.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17429140802567173

[5]   Toby, J. and Bruce, A. (2015) Interplay between Insects and Plants: Dynamic and Complex Interactions That Have Coevolved over Millions of Years but Act in Milliseconds. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66, 455-465.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru391

[6]   Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T. and Horie, T. (2009) Biochar Amendment Techniques for Upland Rice Production in Northern Laos 1. Soil physical Properties, Leaf SPAD and Grain Yield. Field Crop Research, 111, 81-84.

[7]   Xu, G., Lv, Y., Sun, J., Shao, H. and Wei, L. (2012) Recent Advances in Biochar Applications in Agricultural Soils: Benefits and Environmental Implications. CLEAN—Soil Air Water, 40, 1093-1098.
https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201100738

[8]   Biederman, L.A. and Harpole, W.S. (2013) Biochar and Its Effects on Plant Productivity and Nutrient Cycling: A Meta-Analysis. GCB Bioenergy, 5, 202-214.
https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12037

[9]   Elad, Y., David, D.R., Harel, Y.M., Borenshtein, M., Kalifa, H.B., Silber, A. and Graber, E.R. (2010) Induction of Systemic Resistance in Plants by Biochar, a Soil-Applied Carbon Sequestering Agent. Phytophatology, 9, 913-921.
https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto-100-9-0913

[10]   Viger, M., Hancock, R.D., Miglietta, F. and Taylor, G. (2014) More Plant Growth but Less Plant Defence? First Global Gene Expression Data for Plants Grown in Soil Amended with Biochar. GCB Bioenergy, 7, 658-672.
https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12182

[11]   Rocco, M., D’Ambrosio, C., Arena, S., Faurobert, M., Scaloni, A. and Marra, M. (2006) Proteomic Analysis of Tomato Fruits from Two Ecotypes during Ripening. Proteomics, 6, 3781-3791.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200600128

[12]   Livak, K.J. and Schmittgen, T.D. (2001) Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta DeltaC(T)) Method. Methods, 25, 402-408.
https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.2001.1262

[13]   Duceppe, M.-O., Cloutier, C. and Michaud, D. (2012) Wounding, Insect Chewing and Phloem Sap Feeding Differentially Alter the Leaf Proteome of Potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Proteome Science, 10, 73.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-5956-10-73

[14]   Argueso, C.T., Ferreira, F.J., Epple, P., To, J.P.C., Hutchison, C.E., Schaller, G.E., Dangl, J.L. and Kieber, J.J. (2012) Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity. PLoS Genetics, 8, e1002448.

[15]   Hanhart, P., Thieß, M., Amari, K., Bajdzienko, K., Giavalisco, P., Heinlein, M. and Kehr, J. (2017) Bioinformatic and Expression Analysis of the Brassica napus L. Cyclophilins. Scientific Reports, 7, Article No. 1514.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01596-5

[16]   Wu, C. and Bradford, K.J. (2003) Class I Chitinase and β-1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate, Ethylene, and Gibberellin in Tomato Seeds and Leaves. Plant Physiology, 133, 263-273.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.024687

[17]   Vriezen, W.H., Hulzink, R., Mariani, C. and Voesenek, L. (1999) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Activity Limits Ethylene in Rumex Palustris during Submergence. Plant Physiology, 121, 189-195.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.121.1.189

[18]   Cho, S.M., Kang, E.Y., Kim, M.S., Yoo, S.J., Ju Im, Y., Kim, Y.C., Yang, K.Y., Kim, K.Y., Kim, K.S., Choi, Y.S. and Cho, B.H. (2010) Jasmonate-Dependent Expression of a Galactinol Synthase Gene Is Involved in Priming of Systemic Fungal Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Botany, 88, 452-461.
https://doi.org/10.1139/B10-009

[19]   Miller, G., Schlauch, K., Tam, R., Cortes, D., Torres, M.A., Shulaev, V., Dangl, J.L. and Mittler, R. (2009) The Plant NADPH Oxidase RBOHD Mediates Rapid Systemic Signaling in Response to Diverse Stimuli. Plant Biology, 2, ra45.

[20]   Zarate, S.I., Kempema, L.A. and Walling, L.L. (2007) Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses. Plant Physiology, 143, 866-875.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.090035

[21]   Eggermont, L., Stefanowicz, K. and Van Damme, E.J.M. (2017) Nictaba Homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana Are Involved in Plant Stress Responses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 2218.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02218

[22]   Mantelin, S., Bhattarai, K.K. and Kaloshian, I. (2009) Ethylene Contributes to Potato Aphid Susceptibility in a Compatible Tomato Host. New Phytologist, 183, 444-456.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02870.x

[23]   Yates, A.D. and Michel, A. (2018) Mechanisms of Aphid Adaptation to Host Plant Resistance. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 26, 41-49.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2018.01.003

[24]   Sivasankar, S., Sheldrick, B. and Rothstein, S.J. (2000) Expression of Allene Oxide Synthase Determines Defense Gene Activation in Tomato. Plant Physiology, 122, 1335-1342.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.122.4.1335

 
 
Top