JBM  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2018
Analysis of Pyelonephritis-Associated Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus in Japan
Abstract: Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney tissue, calyces, and renal pelvis. It is commonly caused by bacterial infection that has spread up the urinary tract. Common bacteria are Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Beta hemolytic streptococci also cause pyelonephritis. Beta hemolytic streptococcus such as Streptococcus agalactiae, and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, when grown on blood-agar, produce complete hemolysis around each colony, usually cause severe infections including many cases of cellulitis, pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. However the analysis of pyelonephritis causing beta hemolytic streptococcus has seldom been investigated. In this study, we tried to clarify the relationship between beta hemolytic streptococcus and pyelonephritis patient in Japan. We investigated beta hemolytic streptococcus isolated from pyelonephritis patient at two tertiary care hospitals in the central region of Japan by analyzing the background and antimicrobial susceptibility of beta hemolytic streptococcus. We recovered total sixteen beta hemolytic streptococcus in nine years. In pyelonephritis patients, beta hemolytic streptococcus was isolated from 9 S. agalactiae and 7 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, respectively. The numbers of streptococci from female patients were more than those from male patients. Bacteria were not isolated from under 30 year patients. All S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were isolated from 60-year-age patients. About one fifth of beta hemolytic streptococcus had erythromycin and minocycline-resistant ability. Four beta hemolytic streptococci that were all S. agalactiae, had levofloxacin-resistant ability. Only one S. agalactiae had trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant ability. Ampicillin was effective against all beta hemolytic streptococci. In our results, beta hemolytic streptococcus caused pyelonephritis in aged people and the quarter of these bacteria had some antibiotics resistance.
Cite this paper: Minami, M. , Nishiyama, H. , Ikegami, S. , Hattori, T. , Kawashima, M. and Ohta, M. (2018) Analysis of Pyelonephritis-Associated Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus in Japan. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 45-52. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.612004.

[1]   Facklam, R. (2002) What Happened to the Streptococci: Overview of Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 15, 613-630.

[2]   Dhanoa, A., Karunakaran, R. and Puthucheary, S.D. (2010) Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women. Epidemiology and Infection, 138, 979-981.

[3]   Minami, M., Nishiyama, H., Ikegami, S., Hattori, T., Kawashima, M. and Ohta, M. (2016) Trend of Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae at Tertiary Care Hospital in Japan. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 4, 15-20.

[4]   Minami, M., Sakakibara, R., Imura, T., Watanabe, M., Morita, H., Kanemaki, N. and Ohta, M. (2016) Trend of Respiratory Tract-Associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subsp. Equisimilius at General Japanese Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 4, 11-17.

[5]   Skoff, T.H., Farley, M.M., Petit, S., Craig, A.S., Schaffner, W., Gershman, K., et al. (2009) Increasing Burden of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in Nonpregnant Adults, 1990-2007. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49, 85-92.

[6]   Al Akhrass, F., Abdallah, L., Berger, S., Hanna, R., Reynolds, N., Thompson, S., et al. (2013) Streptococcus agalactiae Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature. Medicine (Baltimore), 92, 10-14.

[7]   Wang, Y.H., Chen, C.L., Hou, J.N., Wang, Y.R., Lin, T.Y., Wang, M.H., et al. (2015) Serotype Distribution and Resistance Genes Associated with Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from a Hospital in Southern Taiwan. Biomed Journal, 38, 215-220.

[8]   Belyayeva, M. and Jeong, J.M. (2018) Pyelonephritis, Acute. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island, FL.

[9]   Kusama, Y. and Muraki, K. (2018) Bilateral Multifocal Acute Lobar Nephronia Caused by Enterococcus faecalis. BMJ Case Reports, pii: bcr-2018-224336.

[10]   Ahmad, S. (2015) Asymptomatic Group B Streptococcal Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women in Saudi Arabia. British Journal of Biomedical Science, 72, 135-139.

[11]   Batista, R.P. and Ferreira, C.R. (2015) Streptococcus agalactiae Septicemia in a Patient with Diabetes and Hepatic Cirrhosis. Autopsy & Case Reports, 5, 35-43.

[12]   Kashimada, K., Omori, T., Takizawa, F. and Mizutani, S. (2008) Two Cases of Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Due to Group B Streptococcus Pyelonephritis. Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, 23, 1569-1570.

[13]   Chung, S.Y., Chen, C.H. and Yu, W.L. (2005) Spinal Epidural Abscess Caused by Group B Streptococcus in a Diabetic Woman Presenting with Febrile Low Back Pain. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 58, 177-179.

[14]   Vigueras, I., Enríquez, R., Lacueva, J., Arenas, M.D. and Molas, J.R. (1992) Acute Pye-lonephritis and Hemolytic Anemia Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Revista Clínica Espanola, 191, 502-503.

[15]   Heyman, S.N. and Brezis, M. (1997) Asymptomatic Group-B Streptococcal Pyelonephritis: An Unusual Cause of Acute Renal Failure. Nephron, 75, 243-244.

[16]   Hashikawa, S., Iinuma, Y., Furushita, M., Ohkura, T., Nada, T., Torii, K., et al. (2004) Characterization of Group C and G Streptococcal Strains That Cause Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 186-192.

[17]   Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2014) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: 24st Informational Supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S24, Wayne.

[18]   Ulett, K.B., Benjamin, W.H., Zhuo, F., Xiao, M., Kong, F., Gilbert, G.L., Schembri, M.A. and Ulett, G.C. (2009) Diversity of Group B Streptococcus Serotypes Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Adults. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47, 2055-2060.

[19]   Ueno, H., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamichi, A., Kikuchi, K., Kobori, S. and Miyazaki, M. (2012) Characterization of Group B Streptococcus Isolated from Women in Saitama City, Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 65, 516-521.

[20]   Davis, R. and Bryson, H.M. (1994) Levofloxacin. A Review of Its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Efficacy. Drugs, 47, 677-700.