Back
 AS  Vol.9 No.11 , November 2018
Effects of Supplementation with Increasing Levels of Energy Concentrate on the Productive Response and Ruminal Digestion of Dairy Cows Grazing Lucerne Pasture
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of three levels of energy concentrate intake on dry matter (DM) and energy intake, milk yield and composition, rumen environment and pasture neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion. Twelve Holstein multiparous cows in early lactation (69.0 ± 5 days postpartum) producing 32.8 (±4.0) kg milk were assigned to three treatments at (kg/cow day) 3.5 (T3.5), 7.0 (T7.0) and 10.5 (T10.5) kg concentrate in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Parameters of ruminal environment and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion were obtained using 3 additional rumen cannulated cows. Concentrate was composed (as fed) by corn grain (68%), soybean meal (22%), wheat bran (8%) and a vitamin-mineral premix including monensin and thoroughly consumed. Yields (kg/cow day-1) of milk, 4% fat corrected milk (4% FCM 4%) and energy corrected milk (ECM) resulted higher (p < 0.05) in T7.0 (29.6, 26.1 and 25.7) compared to T3.5 (27.7, 24.5 and 24.2) but similar to those obtained in T10.5 (30.6, 26.2 and 26.0). Milk protein yield increased linearly (p < 0.01) from 0.82 to 0.92 kg/cow day-1 without effects on yield of milk fat. Concentrations (g/100 g) of milk fat (3.19), protein (2.97), total solids (11.75), non-fat solids (8.60) and casein (2.40) did not differ. Milk lactose content (g/100 g) was linearly increased (p < 0.02) from 4.91 to 4.98 whereas milk urea decreased (p < 0.01) from 0.048 to 0.043. Intakes of DM and energy increased with concentrate level without effects on conversion efficiency. Changes in live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS) and concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, somatotrophin (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) were not affected. Plasma urea levels resulted lower (p < 0.05) in T10.5. Ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) resulted lower (p < 0.05) in T10.5 compared to T3.5. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) was higher (p < 0.05) in T3.5 due to the increase in acetate and butyrate while the acetate: Propionate ratio remained unchanged. Pasture NDF digestion was affected as concentrate intake increased. To increase milk protein yield and reduce concentrations of N-NH3 in rumen and milk, feeding an energy concentrate at 41% of total DM intake resulted an effective tool.
Cite this paper: Salado, E. , Bretschneider, G. , Cuatrin, A. and Gagliostro, G. (2018) Effects of Supplementation with Increasing Levels of Energy Concentrate on the Productive Response and Ruminal Digestion of Dairy Cows Grazing Lucerne Pasture. Agricultural Sciences, 9, 1487-1505. doi: 10.4236/as.2018.911104.
References

[1]   Dillon, P., Hennessy, T., Shalloo, L., Thorne, F. and Horan, B. (2008) Future Outlook for the Irish Dairy Industry: A Study of International Competitiveness, Influence of International Trade Reform and Requirement for Change: Review. International Journal Dairy Technology, 61, 16-29.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2008.00374.x

[2]   Kolver, E.S. (2003) Nutritional Limitations to Increased Production on Pasture-Based Systems. Proceedings Nutritional Society, 62, 291-300.
https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS2002200

[3]   Kolver, E.S. and Muller, L.D. (1998) Performance and Nutrient Intake of High Producing Holstein Cows Consuming Pasture or a Total Mixed Ration. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 1403-1411.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75704-2

[4]   Delaby, L. and Peyraud, J.L. (1997) Influence of Concentrate Supplementation Strategy on Grazing Dairy Cow’s Performance. In: Christie, B.R., Ed., Proceedings of the XVIII International Grassland Congress, Winnipeg, 137-138.

[5]   Gagliostro, G.A. and Chilliard, Y. (1992) Review. Protected Lipid Utilization in Dairy Cows Nutrition. II. Effects on Plasma Metabolites and Hormones, Body Lipid Mobilization and Metabolic Activity of Adipose Tissue. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 12, 17-32.

[6]   Bargo, F., Muller, L.D., Kolver, E.S. and Delahoy, J.E. (2003) Invited Review: Production and Digestion of Supplemented Dairy Cows on Pasture. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 1-42.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73581-4

[7]   Delaby, L. and Peyraud, J.L. (2003) The Effect of Two Contrasting Grazing Managements and Level of Concentrate Supplementation on the Performance of Grazing Dairy Cows. Animal Research, 52, 437-460.
https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003030

[8]   Beever, D.E. and Siddons, R.C. (1986) Digestion and Metabolism in Grazing Ruminants. In: Milligan, L.P., Grovum, W.L. and Dobson, A., Eds., Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants, Prentice-Hall, Banff, 479-497.

[9]   Bargo, F., Muller, L.D., Delahoy, J.E. and Cassidy, T.W. (2002) Milk Response to Concentrate Supplementation of High Producing Dairy Cows Grazing at Two Pasture Allowances. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 1777-1792.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74252-5

[10]   Leddin, C.M., Stockdale, C.R., Hill, J., Heard, J.W. and Doyle, P.T. (2010) Increasing Amounts of Crushed Wheat Fed with Persian Clover Herbage Reduced Ruminal pH and Dietary Fibre Digestibility in Lactating Dairy Cows. Animal Production Science, 50, 837-846.
https://doi.org/10.1071/AN09157

[11]   Meijs, J.A.C., Walters, R.J.K. and Keen, A. (1982) Sward Methods. In: Herbage Intake Handbook, British Grassland Society Ed., 11-36.

[12]   Komarek, A.R. (1993) An Improved Filtering Technique for the Analysis of Neutral Detergent Fiber and Acid Detergent Fiber Utilizing the Filter Bag Technique. Ankom Tech. Corp., Fairport, Publication No. 101, 1-10.

[13]   AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, AOAC, Washington DC.

[14]   AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1998) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition, AOAC, Arlington.

[15]   Tilley, J.M.A. and Terry, R.A. (1963) A Two-Stage Technique for in Vitro Digestion of Forage Crops. Journal British Grassland Society, 18, 104-111.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x

[16]   Mcrae, J.E. and Armstrong, D.G. (1968) Enzyme Method for Determination of Alpha-Linked Glucose Polymers in Biological Materials. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 19, 578-581.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740191006

[17]   Ovejero, F. (1987) Chemical and Biological Chemical Evaluation of Forages. Dirección de Desarrollo de Recursos Humanos.

[18]   Gaines, W.L. and Davidson, F.A. (1923) Relation between Percentage of Fat Content and Yield of Milk. University of Illinois, Chicago, 245.

[19]   Tyrrell, H.F. and Reid, J.T. (1965) Prediction of the Energy Value of Cow’s Milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 48, 1215-1223.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(65)88430-2

[20]   Wildman, E.E., Jones, G.M., Wagner, P.E., Boman, R.L., Troutt, H.F. and Lesch, T.N. (1982) A Dairy Cow Body Condition Scoring System and Its Relationship to Selected Production Characteristics. Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 495-501.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82223-6

[21]   Salado, E.E., Gagliostro, G.A., Becu-Villalobos, D. and Lacau-Mengido, I. (2004) Partial Replacement of Corn Grain by Hydrogenated Oil in Grazing Dairy Cows in Early Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 1265-1278.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73277-4

[22]   Salado, E.E., Bretschneider, G., Cuatrin, A., Descalzo, A.M. and Gagliostro, G.A. (2017) Milk Yield and Composition and Pasture Ruminal Digestion in Grazing Dairy Cows Receiving Three Levels of Energy Concentrate Supplementation. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 1135-1156.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.810083

[23]   National Research Council (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revision Edition, National Academy Press, Washington DC.

[24]   Rigout, S., Hurtaud, C., Lemosquet, S., Bach, A. and Rulquin, H. (2003) Lactational Effect of Propionic Acid and Duodenal Glucose in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 243-253.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73603-0

[25]   Huntington, G.B. (1997) Starch Utilization by Ruminants: From Basics to the Bunk. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 852-867.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753852x

[26]   Mehrez, A.Z. and Ørskov, E.R. (1977) A Study of the Artificial Fibre Bag Technique for Determining the Digestibility of Feeds in the Rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 88, 645-650.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600037321

[27]   Mertens, D.R. and Loften, J.R. (1980) The Effect of Starch on Forage Fiber Digestion Kinetics in Vitro. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 1437-1446.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83101-8

[28]   Fernández, H.H. (2004) A Simple Procedure for Estimate Useful Functions in Animal Production Using Solver from Excel. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 24, 75-85.

[29]   Gaggiotti, M.G., Salado, E.E., Gallardo, M.R., Arakaki, L.C., Valtorta, S.E. and Castro, H.C. (2007) In Situ Degradation of Rapeseed and Soybean Meal and the Effects of Its Supplementation on the Ruminal Environment of Dairy Cows with Access to Alfalfa Grazing. 20th Reunión Latinoamericana de Producción Animal, Cusco, 22-25 Octubre 2007.

[30]   Friggens, N.C., Oldham, J.D., Dewhurst, R.J. and Horgan, G. (1998) Proportions of Volatile Fatty Acids in Relation to the Chemical Composition of Feeds Based on Grass Silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 1331-1344.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75696-6

[31]   SAS Institute Inc. (1999) SAS/STAT User’s Guide (Release 8.0). SAS Institute, Cary.

[32]   Gaggiotti, M. (2008) Table of Chemical Composition of Foods for Ruminants. INTA Editions, 67 p.

[33]   Poppi, D.P., Hughes, T.P. and L’Huillier, P.J. (1987) Intake of Pasture by Grazing Ruminants. In: Nicol, A.M., Ed., Livestock Feeding on Pasture, Occ. Pub. No. 10, Hamilton, New Zealand Society of Animal Production, 55-64.

[34]   Baudracco, J., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Romero, L.A., Scandolo, D., Maciel, M., Comeron, E.A., Holmes, C.W. and Barry, T.N. (2011) Effects of Stocking Rate on Pasture Production, Milk Production and Reproduction of Supplemented Crossbred Holstein-Jersey Dairy Cows Grazing Lucerne Pasture. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 168, 131-143.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.03.017

[35]   Leaver, J.D. (1985) Milk Production from Grazed Temperate Grassland. A Review. Journal of Dairy Research, 52, 313-344.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900024201

[36]   Romero, L.A., Comeron, E.A., Bruno, O.A. and Diaz, M.C. (1995) Effect of Herbage Allowance on Performances of Dairy Cows Grazing Alfalfa Swards. 1. Intake and Ingestive Behaviour. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 15, 623-626.

[37]   Minson, D.J. (1990) Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press, Inc., Queensland.

[38]   Verité, R. and Journet, M. (1970) Effect of the Water Content of Grass and Dehydration at Low Temperature upon Its Feeding Value for Dairy Cows. Annales de Zootechnie, 19, 255-268.

[39]   Paterson, J.A., Belyea, R.L., Bowman, J.P., Kerley, M.S. and Williams, J.E. (1994) The Impact of Forage Quality and Supplementation Regimen on Ruminant Animal Intake and Performance. In: Fahey Jr., G.C., Ed., Forage Quality, Evaluation and Utilization, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, 59-114.

[40]   Kellaway, R. and Harrington, T. (2004) Feeding Concentrates Supplements for Dairy Cows. Revised Edition, Landlinks Press, Collingwood, 171 p.

[41]   Beever, D.E. and Doyle, P.T. (2007) Feed Conversion Efficiency as a Key Determinant of Dairy Herd Performance: A Review. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture, 47, 645-657.
https://doi.org/10.1071/EA06048

[42]   Reis, R.B. and Combs, D.K. (2000) Effects of Increasing Levels of Grain Supplementation on Rumen Environment and Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows Grazing Grass-Legume Pasture. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2888-2898.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75189-7

[43]   Kellaway, R. and Porta, S. (1993) Feeding Concentrates Supplements for Dairy Cows. Dairy Research and Development Corporation, Melbourne.

[44]   Walker, G.P., Stockdale, C.R., Wales, W.J., Doyle, P.T. and Dellow, D.W. (2001) Effect of Level of Grain Supplementation on Milk Production Responses of Dairy Cows in Mid-Late Lactation When Grazing Irrigated Pastures High in Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum Poir). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1071/EA00076

[45]   Rigout, S., Lemosquet, S., van Eys, J.E., Blum, J.W. and Rulquin, H. (2002) Duodenal Glucose Increases Glucose Fluxes and Lactose Synthesis in Grass-Silage Fed Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 595-606.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74113-1

[46]   Lemosquet, S., Rigout, S., Bach, A., Rulquin, H. and Blum, W. (2004) Glucose Metabolism in Lactating Cows in Response to Isoenergetic Infusions of Propionic Acid or Duodenal Glucose. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 1767-1777.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73332-9

[47]   Garcia, S.C. and Fulkerson, W.J. (2005) Opportunities for Future Australian Dairy Systems: A Review. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture, 45, 1041-1055.
https://doi.org/10.1071/EA04143

[48]   Dixon, R.M. and Stockdale, C.R. (1999) Associative Effects between Forages and Grains: Consequences for Feed Utilization. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50, 757-773.
https://doi.org/10.1071/AR98165

[49]   Delahoy, J.E., Muller, L.D., Bargo, F., Cassidy, T.W. and Holden, L.A. (2003) Supplemental Carbohydrate Sources for Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 906-915.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73673-X

[50]   Chilliard, Y., Bocquier, F. and Doreau, M. (1998) Digestive and Metabolic Adaptations of Ruminants to Undernutrition, and Consequences on Reproduction. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 38, 131-152.
https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19980201

[51]   Cissé, M., Chilliard, Y., Coxam, V., Davicco, M.J. and Remond, B. (1991) Slow Release Somatotropin in Dairy Heifers and Cows Fed Two Levels of Energy Concentrate. 2. Plasma Hormones and Metabolites. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 1382-1394.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78293-3

[52]   Grummer, R.R. (1995) Impact of Changes in Organic Nutrient Metabolism on Feeding the Transition Dairy Cow. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 2820-2833.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7392820x

[53]   Van Knegsel, A.T.M., Van den Brand, H., Graat, E.A.M., Dijkstra, J., Jorritsma, R., Decuypere, E., Tamminga, S. and Kemp, B. (2007) Dietary Energy Source in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation: Metabolites and Metabolic Hormones. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 1477-1485.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71633-8

[54]   McGuire, M.A., Dwyer, D.A., Bauman, D.E. and Smith, D.F. (1998) Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Plasma and Afferent Mammary Lymph of Lactating Cows Deprived of Feed or Treated with Bovine Somatotropin. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 950-957.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75655-3

[55]   DePeters, E.J. and Ferguson, J.D. (1992) Nonprotein Nitrogen and Protein Distribution in the Milk of Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 3192-3209.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78085-0

[56]   Kolver, E.S. and de Veth, M.J. (2002) Prediction of Ruminal pH from Pasture-Based Diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 1255-1266.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74190-8

[57]   Dijkstra, J., Boer, H., Van Bruchem, J., Bruining, M. and Tamminga, S. (1993) Absorption of Volatile Fatty Acids from the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows as Influenced by Volatile Fatty Acid Concentration, pH and Rumen Liquid Volume. British Journal of Nutrition, 69, 385-396.
https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19930041

[58]   Granzin, B.C. (2004) Effects of Supplement Grain Type and Level of Feeding on the Milk Production of Early-Lactation Holstein-Friesian Cows Grazing Temperate and Tropical Pastures. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture, 44, 735-743.
https://doi.org/10.1071/EA03042

[59]   Mould, F.L. and Orskov, E.R. (1983) Manipulation of Rumen Fluid pH and Its Influence on Cellulolysis in Sacco, Dry Matter Degradation and the Rumen Microflora of Sheep Offered Either Hay or Concentrate. Animal Science and Technology, 10, 1-14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90002-0

[60]   Antonacci, L., Barbera, P., Garciarena, D.A., Cangiano, C.A. and Gagliostro, G.A. (2009) Effect of Supplementation with Increasing Levels of Concentrate on the Productive Response of Grazing Dairy Cows. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 29, 210-211.

[61]   Araujo, L.E. (2013) Effect of Increasing Levels of Energy Concentrate Consumption on the Productive Response and Ruminal Environment of Grazing Dairy Cows. Master Science Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar de Plata, Argentina.

[62]   Freund, R. and Littell, R. (1981) SAS® for Linear Models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 187-193.

[63]   Peyraud, J.L. and Delaby, L. (2001) Ideal Concentrate Feeds for Grazing Dairy Cows Responses to Supplementation in Interaction with Grazing Management and Grass Quality. In: Garnsworthy, P.C. and Wiseman, J., Eds., Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 203.

[64]   Dillon, P. (2006) Achieving High Dry Matter Intake from Pasture with Grazing Dairy Cows. In: Elgersma, A., Dijkstra, J. and Tamminga, S., Eds., Fresh Herbage for Dairy Cattle: The Key to a Sustainable Food Chain, Springer, Berlin, 1-26.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5452-5_1

[65]   Stockdale, C.R. (2000) Levels of Pasture Substitution When Concentrates Are Fed to Grazing Dairy Cows in Northern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 40, 913-921.
https://doi.org/10.1071/EA00034

 
 
Top