AJPS  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2018
In Vitro Plant Regeneration of Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro) M. Kumar, Remesh & Unnikrisnan, through Somatic Embryogenesis
Abstract: Dendrocalamus stocksii is fast cultivating economically important forest crop species. National Mission of Bamboo Application (NMBA) of India has been identified in 15 industrially important bamboo species. Traditionally it was propagated through by offset cuttings and rhizome splitting which was not meeting the demand, culm cuttings needed mass material to propagate and rooting percentage mixed. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was achieved in callus cultures derived from the callus initiated through type of explants viz. leaf, leaf sheath, shoot tip, nodal shoot segments, and inter node segments from aseptic cultures. Explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog basal media supplemented with 2,4 Dichloro diphenyle ethane 0.44 μM/L with additives (Ascorbic acid 8.8 μM/L, citric acid 4.8 μM/L Cysteine 3.02 μM/L and Glutamine 14.6 μM/L) with 3% sucrose and Agar agar 0.6%. Cultures were incubated in the dark at 25°C ± 1°C. Out of five types of explants nodal shoot induced callus > 80% followed by leaf sheath (60%) and no callus was induced in leaf. Various nutrient media viz. Murashige and Skoog (MS), Woody Plant Media (WP), Gamborg media (B5) and Heller’s (HE) media fortified with 2,4 D (0.2 - 1.10 μM/L) and Kinetin 0.10 μM/L were tested for high frequency callus induction. Among four nutrient media tested MS media fortified with 2,4 D (0.55 - 1.1 μM/L) 100% callus induction. Calli multiplication was carried out with various concentrations of PGR’s with 10% coconut milk. Out of these MS media 2,4 D 0.55 μM /L and 10% coconut milk concentration were found best for high frequency (80%) calli multiplication. Various combinations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with N6-benzyiaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin were tested for embryo germination, out of which MS media supplemented with NAA 0.55 μM /L and BAP 0.22 μM /L were showed high frequency (80%) germination. Germinated plantlets carefully transferred to polybags containing potting mixture of sand soil and compost in the ratio of 40:10:50 with 10 Kg/m3 + 250 gm/m3 fungicide. Plantlets were kept 4 weeks under poly tunnel inside mist chamber followed by two weeks outside poly tunnel in mist chamber. Plants are lifted to the canopy condition directed to a week before subjected to them in the institute division nursery.
Cite this paper: Somashekar, P. , Rathore, T. and Fatima, T. (2018) In Vitro Plant Regeneration of Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro) M. Kumar, Remesh & Unnikrisnan, through Somatic Embryogenesis. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 2429-2445. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.912176.

[1]   Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962) A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bioassay with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiology Plant, 15, 473-497.

[2]   Soderstrum, R. and Ellis, R.P. (1988) The Woody Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusa) of Sri Lanka: A Morphological-Anatomical Study. Smithsonian Contribution No. 72, 1-74.

[3]   Anonymous (2003) National Mission on Bamboo Technology and Trade Development. Planning Commission, Government of India, 176.

[4]   Rai, S.N. and Chauhan, K.V.S. (1999) Distribution and Growing Stock of Bamboos in India. Indian Forester, 124, 89-98.

[5]   Tewari, D.N. (1992) A Monograph on Bamboo. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, 498.

[6]   Singhal, R.M. and Gangopadhyay, P.B. (1999) Bamboos in India and Data Base, Publication Division. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehra Dun, 147.

[7]   Seethalakshmi, K.K. and Kumar, M. (1998) Bamboo of India: A Compendium. KFRI, Peechi, 342 p.

[8]   Yellappa Reddy, A.N. and Yekanthappa, K. (1989) Propagation Technique of Oxytenanthera stocksii. My Forest, 25, 30-32.

[9]   Banik, R.L. (1984) Macropropagation of Bamboos by Pre-Rooted and Pre-Rhizomed Branch Cuttings. Biggyan Patrika, 13, 67-73.

[10]   Hasan, S.M. (1977) Studies on Vegetative Propagation of Bamboos. Bano Biggyanpatrica, 6, 64-71.

[11]   Geilis, J., Peeters, H. and Deberg, P.C. (2002) Tissue Culture Strategies for Genetic Improvement of Bamboo. Acta Horticulture, 552, 195-203.

[12]   Thorpe, T.A., Harry, I.S. and Kumar, P.P. (1992) Application of Micropropagation in Forestry. In: Debergh, P.C. and Zimmerman, R.H., Eds., Micropropagation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 311-335.

[13]   Chambers, S.M., Heuch, J.H.R. and Pirrie, A. (1991) Micropropagation and in Vitro Flowering of the Bamboo—Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Munro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture, 27, 45-49.

[14]   Prutpongse, P. and Gavinlertvatana, P. (1992) In Vitro Micropropagation of 54 Species from 15 Genera of Bamboo. Horticutlure Science, 27, 453-454.

[15]   Woods, S.H., Woods, J.E. and Collins, G.B. (1995) Somatic Embryogenesis in Bamboo. In: Jain, S.M., Gupta, P.K. and Newton, R.J., Eds., Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 41-52.

[16]   Chang, W.C. (1995) Somatic Embryogenesis of Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa beecheyana and Sinocalamus latiflora. Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, 2, 53-66.

[17]   Hassan, A.A.EI. and Debergh, P. (1987) Embryogenesis and Plantlet Development in the Bamboo—Phyllostachysviridis (Yound) McClure. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 15, 73-77.

[18]   Ramanuja Rao, I.V. and Rao, U. (1990) Tissue Culture Approaches to the Mass Propagation and Genetic Improvement of Bamboos.

[19]   Lin, C.S. and Chang, W.C. (1998) Micropropagation of Bambusaedulis through Nodal Explants of Field Grown Culms and Flowering of Regenerated Plantlets. Plant Cell Report, 17, 617-620.

[20]   Gamborg, O.L., Miller, R.A. and Ojima, K. (1968) Nutrient Requirements of Suspension Cultures of Soyabean Root Cells. Experiment Cell Research, 50, 151-158.

[21]   Lin, C.S., Lin, C.C. and Chang, W.C. (2004) Effect of Thidiazuron on Vegetative Tissue-Derived Somatic Embryogenesis and Flowering of Bamboo—Bambusaedulis. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 76, 75-82.

[22]   Rout, G.R. and Das, P. (1994) Somatic Embryogenesis and in Vitro Flowering of Three Species of Bamboo. Plant Cell Report, 13, 683-686.

[23]   Rao, I.U., Ramanuja Rao, I.V. and Narang, V. (1985) Somatic Embryogenesis and Regeneration of Plants in Bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus. Plant Cell Report, 4, 191-194.

[24]   Jullien, F. and Tran Thanh Van, K. (1994) Micropropagation and Embryoids Formation from Young Leaves of Bambusa glaucescens Gold Goddress. Plant Science, 98, 199-207.

[25]   Rao, I.U., Ramanuja Rao, I.V., Narang, V., Jerath, R. and Pillai, K.G. (1990) Mass Propagation of Bamboo from Somatic Embryos and Their Successful Transfer to Forest. Bamboo Current Research, 167-172.

[26]   Yeh, M.L. and Chang, W.C. (1987) Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis in Mature Embryo-Derived Callus Culture of Sinocalamus latifolia (Munro) McClure. Plant Science, 51, 93-96.

[27]   Yeh, M.L. and Chang, W.C. (1986) Somatic Embryogenesis and Subsequent Plant Regeneration from Inflorescence Callus of Bambusa beecheyana Munro var. beecheyana. Plant Cell Reports, 5, 409-411.

[28]   Woods, S.H., Phillips, G.C., Woods, J.E. and Collins, G.B. (1992) Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Zygotic Embryo Explants in Mexican Weeping Bamboo, Otateaacuminata azetecorum. Plant Cell Reports, 11, 257-261.

[29]   Saxena, S. and Dhawan, V. (1999) Regeneration of Large-Scale Propagation of Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus Nees) through Somatic Embryogenesis. Plant Cell Report, 18, 438-444.