AAD  Vol.7 No.4 , December 2018
Arginase as a Potential Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with an insidious onset that is characterized by severe decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. Advanced age is a prominent risk factor for AD and other metabolic diseases, such as type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Their causal mechanisms are multifaceted and not fully understood. The precise pathophysiology of AD remains a mystery despite decades of intensive investigation. Thus far, there is no truly successful AD therapy. Arginase is the central enzyme of the urea cycle. Recent studies have identified arginase function in the brain and associated this enzyme with the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Upregulation of arginase has been shown to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, ischemia-reperfusion, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Other state-of-the-art discoveries of the precise molecular machinery of neurodegeneration have provided new directions for the rational development of innovative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of common neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the regulation of arginase activity appears to be a universal approach in interfering with the pathogenesis of AD and providing relief for it and other metabolic disorders. Therefore, the enzyme represents a novel therapeutic target. Arginase inhibition has been shown to reverse amyloid-driven neuronal dysfunction and microgliosis and prevent the development of other AD symptoms in rodent models of AD. Consequently, the methodology represents a promising direction for clinical development.
Cite this paper: Polis, B. and Samson, A. (2018) Arginase as a Potential Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, 7, 119-140. doi: 10.4236/aad.2018.74009.

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