CE  Vol.2 No.5 , December 2011
Creativity in Science: Tensions between Perception and Practice
Author(s) Adele L. Schmidt
ABSTRACT
Many countries are reviewing science education programmes and implementing new pedagogical paradigms aimed at reversing a trend of declining enrolments. A key factor in this decline is a public perception that science is not a creative endeavour. Attempts to reframe public perception tend to focus on primary and secondary schooling, but do little to address ongoing declines in quality and originality of intellectual output beyond the highschool environment. To overcome systemic devaluation of science requires appreciation of the complex, dynamic, and often stochastic, interplay of sociocultural, psychological and cognitive factors that drive human creativity. Viewing creativity from this perspective reveals tensions between perception and practice that limit opportunities for students, science educators and scientists. Resolving the tension requires integration of developmental, psychometric and sociocultural discourses of creativity in ways that generate opportunities for individuals at all levels of education and practice to: 1) acquire a high level of domain-specific knowledge; 2) practise application of that knowledge in developing solutions to problems across a gradient of difficulty and; 3) be challenged to integrate their knowledge of science with their knowledge of other fields to pursue and solve problems with personal relevance.

Cite this paper
nullSchmidt, A. (2011). Creativity in Science: Tensions between Perception and Practice. Creative Education, 2, 435-445. doi: 10.4236/ce.2011.25063.
References
[1]   Al-Balushi, S. (2002). Correction fluid to correct your creativity. Science Activities, 38, 16. doi:10.1080/00368120209603627

[2]   Alan, L. (2002). The art of science. New Scientist, 176, 68.

[3]   Anderson, D. M. (1996). The science of creativity. Success, 43, 11.

[4]   Australian_Research_Council (2008). ARC future fellowships consultation paper. Canberra: Australian Research Council.

[5]   Bagnall, R. G. (2001). Locating lifelong learning and education in contemporary currents of thought and culture. In D. Aspin (Ed.), International handbook on lifelong learning. Dordrecht: Kluwer Publishing.

[6]   Barak, M., & Shachar, A. (2008). Projects in technology education and fostering learning: The potential and its realization. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 285-296. doi:10.1007/s10956-008-9098-2

[7]   Baran, G., Erdogan, S., & ?akmak, A. (2009). A study on the relationship between six-year-old children’s creativity and mathematical ability. International Education Studies, 4, 105-111.

[8]   Barker, P. (2008). Re-evaluating a model of learning design. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(2), 127-141. doi:10.1080/14703290801950294

[9]   Barnes, T. J. (2004). Placing ideas: Genius loci, heterotopia and geography’s quantitative revolution. Progress in Human Geography, 28, 585-595.

[10]   Barrow, L. H. (2006). A brief history of inquiry: From Dewey to Standards. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17, 265-278. doi:10.1007/s10972-006-9008-5

[11]   Barton, A. C., Tan, E., & Rivet, A. (2008). Creating hybrid spaces for engaging school science among urban middle school girls. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 68. doi:10.3102/0002831207308641

[12]   Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2009). Intellectual estuaries: Connecting learning and creativity in programs of advanced academics. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20, 296-324. doi:10.1177/1932202X0902000205

[13]   Bélanger, P. (1999). Adult learning and the transformation of work. In M. Singh (Ed.), Adult learning and the future of work (pp. 19-28). Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education.

[14]   Ben-zvi-Assarf, O., & Orion, N. (2005). A study of junior high students’ perceptions of the water cycle. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 366.

[15]   Beswick, J. F., Willms, J. D., & Sloat, E. A. (2005). A comparative study of teacher ratings of emergent literacy skills and student performance on a standardised measure. Education, 126, 116.

[16]   Billett, S. (2001). Learning throughout working life: Interdependencies at work. Studies in Continuing Education, 23, 19-35. doi:10.1080/01580370120043222

[17]   Black, A. A. (2005). Spatial ability and earth science conceptual understanding. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 402.

[18]   Boden, M. (2001). Creativity and knowledge. In A. Craft, B. Jeffrey, & M. Leibling (Eds.), Creativity in education (pp. 95-102). London: Continuum Publishing.

[19]   Bore, A. (2006). Bottom-up for creativity in science? A collaborative model for curriculum and professional development. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 413-422. doi:10.1080/02607470600982019

[20]   Bower, M., & Richards, D. (2006). Collaborative learning: Some possibilities and limitations for students and teachers. Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference: Who’s learning? Whose technology? Sydney: University of Sydney.

[21]   Braben, D. (2004). Pioneering research: A risk worth taking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

[22]   Bruning, R., Schraw, G., Norby, M., & Ronning, R. (2004). Cognitive psychology and instruction (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

[23]   Bulte, A. M. W., Westbroek, H. B., De Jong, O., & Pilot, A. (2006). A research approach to designing chemistry education using authentic practices as contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 28, 1063-1086. doi:10.1080/09500690600702520

[24]   Calderon, J., Subotnik, R., Knotek, S., Rayhack, K., & Gorgia, J. (2007). Focus on the psychosocial dimensions of talent development: an important potential role for consultee-centered consultants. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 17, 347-367. doi:10.1080/10474410701634302

[25]   Caon, M. (2008a). Getting published in australasian physical and engineering sciences. Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 31, 424.

[26]   Caon, M. (2008b). Peer review: How to be a good reviewer. Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 31, 13. doi:10.1007/BF03178594

[27]   Carnoy, M. (1999). The great work dilemma: Education, employment and wages in the new global economy. In J. Ahier, & G. Esland (Eds.), Education, training and the future of work 1: Social, political and economic contexts of policy development (pp. 62-75). London: Routledge.

[28]   Capraro, M. M., Kulm, G., & Capraro, R. M. (2005). Middle grades: Misconceptions in statistical thinking. School Science and Mathematics, 105, 165. doi:10.1111/j.1949-8594.2005.tb18156.x

[29]   Carpenter, S., Armbrust, E., Arzberger, P., Chapin, F., III, Elser, J., Hackett, E., Ives, A., Kareiva, P., Leibold, M., Lundberg, P., Mangel, M., Merchant, N., Murdoch, W., Palmer, M., Peters, D., Pickett, S., Smith, K., Wall, D., & Zimmerman, A. (2009). Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences. Bioscience, 59, 699. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.8.11

[30]   Carter, L. (2008). Sociocultural influences on science education: Innovation for contemporary times. Science Education, 92, 165-181. doi:10.1002/sce.20228

[31]   Chandler, R. (1999). Creative parallel spaces in science and art: Knowledge in the information age. Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 29, 163-176. doi:10.1080/10632929909597301

[32]   Chin, C., & Chia, L.-G. (2004). Problem-based learning: Using students’ questions to drive knowledge construction. Science Education, 88, 707-727. doi:10.1002/sce.10144

[33]   Christine, C., & Glenn, E. S. (2007). General, artistic and scientific creativity attributes of engineering and music students. Creativity Research Journal, 19, 213. doi:10.1080/10400410701397271

[34]   Clegg, P. (2008). Creativity and critical thinking in the globalised university. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 219. doi:10.1080/14703290802175982

[35]   Connolly, W. E. (2006). Experience & experiment. Daedalus, 135, 67-76. doi:10.1162/daed.2006.135.3.67

[36]   Craft, A. (2006a). Fostering creativity with wisdom. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 337. doi:10.1080/03057640600865835

[37]   Craft, A. (2006b). Fostering creativity with wisdom. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 337-350. doi:10.1080/03057640600865835

[38]   Craft, A., Chappell, K., & Twining, P. (2008). Learners reconceptualising education: Widening participation through creative engagement? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 235-245. doi:10.1080/14703290802176089

[39]   Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Theories of creativity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[40]   Culross, R. R. (2004). Individual and contextual variables among creative scientists: The new work paradigm. Roeper Review, 26, 126. doi:10.1080/02783190409554257

[41]   Dahlman, Y. (2007). Towards a theory that links experience in the arts with the acquisition of knowledge. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 26, 274-284. doi:10.1111/j.1476-8070.2007.00538.x

[42]   DaSilva, N., & Davis, A. R. (2011). Absorptive capacity at the individual level: Linking creativity to innovation in academia. The Review of Higher Education, 34, 355-379. doi:10.1353/rhe.2011.0007

[43]   Davis, R. M. (2005). Creativity in science: chance, logic, genius, and zeitgeist. Choice, 42, 874.

[44]   De Groote, S. M. A. (2008). Citation patterns of online and print journals in the digital age. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 96, 362. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.4.012

[45]   Demirci, N. (2008). Misconception patterns from students to teachers: an example for force and motion concepts. Journal of Science Education, 9, 55.

[46]   Dewey, J. (1916). Vocational aspects of education. Democracy and Education, 23, New York: The Free Press.

[47]   Dohnt, H. K., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 135. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9020-7

[48]   DuVall, R. (2001). Cultivating curiosity with comfort: Skills for inquiry-based teaching. Primary Voices K-6, 10, 33-37.

[49]   Endler, L. C., & Bond, T. G. (2008). Changing science outcomes: Cognitive acceleration in a US setting. Research in Science Education, 38, 149-166. doi:10.1007/s11165-007-9042-0

[50]   Erez, R. (2004). Freedom and creativity: An approach to science education for excellent students and its realization in the Israel arts and science academy’s curriculum. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15, 133-140.

[51]   Feller, I., & Cozzens, S. (2008). It’s about more than money. Issues in Science and Technology, 24, 28.

[52]   Foley, G. (1999). Back to basics: A political economy of workplace change and learning. Studies in the Education of Adults, 31, 181-196.

[53]   Fondacaro, M. R., Brank, E. M., Stuart, J., Villanueva-Abraham, S., Luescher, J., & McNatt, P. S. (2006). Identity orientation, voice, and judgments of procedural justice during late adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 987-997. doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9035-8

[54]   Forrester, K., Payne, J., & Ward, K. (1995). Lifelong education and the workplace: A critical analysis. International Journal of Lifelong Learning, 14, 292-305.

[55]   Freebody, P., & Luke, A. (1990). “Literacies” programs: Debates and demands in cultural context. Prospect, 5, 7-16.

[56]   Garbrecht, L. S. (2006). Schools’ influence on identity formation in a time of change. Educational Researcher, 35, 42-48. doi:10.3102/0013189X035009042

[57]   Gautier, C., Deutsch, K., & Rebich, S. (2006). Misconceptions about the greenhouse effect. Journal of Geoscience Education, 54, 386.

[58]   Gee, J. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies (2nd ed., pp. 139-143). London: Falmer Press.

[59]   Geist, E., & Hohn, J. (2009). Encouraging creativity in the face of administrative convenience: How our schools discourage divergent thinking. Education, 130, 141-140.

[60]   Gilbert, D. M. (2007). Creativity: Ethics and excellence in science. Choice, 45, 118.

[61]   Goodenough, U. W. (1993). Creativity in science. Zygon, 28, 399. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1993.tb01043.x

[62]   Goran, D., & Braude, S. (2007). Social & cooperative learning in the solving of case histories. The American Biology Teacher, 69, 80-84. doi:10.1662/0002-7685(2007)69[80:SCLITS]2.0.CO;2

[63]   Groundwater-Smith, S., Mitchell, J., & Mockler, N. (2007). Learning in the middle years: More than a transition. Melbourne: Thomson

[64]   Haigh, M. (2007). Can investigative practical work in high school biology foster creativity? Research in Science Education, 37, 123-140. doi:10.1007/s11165-006-9018-5

[65]   Hamza, K. M., & Wickman, P.-O. (2008). Describing and analyzing learning in action: An empirical study of the importance of misconceptions in learning science. Science Education, 92, 141-164. doi:10.1002/sce.20233

[66]   Hamza, K. M., & Wickman, P.-O. (2009). Beyond explanations: What else do students need to understand science? Science Education, 93, 1-24.

[67]   Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change. San Francisco: Corwin Press.

[68]   Harreveld, B., Baker, K., & Isdale, L. (2008). Teachers’ work in reading literacy across the curriculum in the senior phase of learning. Curriculum Journal, 19, 105-118. doi:10.1080/09585170802079538

[69]   Hawk, S. T., Vanwesenbeeck, I., Graaf, H. D., & Bakker, F. (2006). Adolescents’ contact with sexuality in mainstream media: A selection-based perspective. The Journal of Sex Research, 43, 352. doi:10.1080/00224490609552334

[70]   Heilbron, J. L. (1992). Creativity and big science. Physics Today, 45, 42. doi:10.1063/1.881322

[71]   Herbert, A. S. (2001). Creativity in the arts and the sciences. The Kenyon Review, 23, 203.

[72]   Hoffmann, R. (2008). A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics, 40, 1047. doi:10.1038/ng.f.217

[73]   Hollander, D. (2006). Sex in the media: Links to behavior differ between white and black teenagers. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38, 172. doi:10.1111/j.1931-2393.2006.tb00272.x

[74]   Holligan, C. (2005). Fact and fiction: A case history of doctoral supervision. Educational Research, 47, 267-278. doi:10.1080/00131880500287179

[75]   Imel, S. (1998). Using adult learning principles in adult basic and literacy education, Education Practice Application Brief. Office of Educational Research & Improvement.

[76]   Jackson, S. A. (2004). Ahead of the curve: Future shifts in higher education. EDUCAUSE Review, 39, 10-18.

[77]   Jacob, F. (2001). Imagination in art and in science. The Kenyon Review, 23, 113.

[78]   Jakobsson, A., Akitalo, A. M., & Aljo, R. S. (2009). Conceptions of knowledge in research on students understanding of the greenhouse effect: Methodological positions and their consequences for representations of knowing. Science Education, 93, 1-18.

[79]   Jeffrey, B. (2006). Creative teaching and learning: Towards a common discourse and practice. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 399- 414. doi:10.1080/03057640600866015

[80]   Jerome, R. M. M. (2008). Further developing the profession’s research mentality. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 96, 287. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.4.003

[81]   Jung, C. G. (Ed.) (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Dell Publishing.

[82]   Katehi, L., & Ross, M. (2007). Technology and culture: Exploring the creative instinct through cultural interpretations. Journal of Engineering Education, 96, 89-90.

[83]   Kean, R., Mitchell, N., & Wilson, D. (2008). Toward intentionality and transparency: Analysis and reflection on the process of general education reform. Peer Review, 10, 4.

[84]   Kessels, U., Rau, M., & Hannover, B. (2006). What goes well with physics? Measuring and altering the image of science. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 761-780. doi:10.1348/000709905X59961

[85]   Kilpatrick, S., & Allen, K. (2001). Review of research: Factors influencing demand for vocational education and training courses. Adelaide: Australian National Training Authority.

[86]   Kim, K. H. (2005). Learning from each other: Creativity in East Asian and American education. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 337-347. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1704_5

[87]   Kind, P. M., & Kind, V. (2007). Creativity in science education: Perspectives and challenges for developing school science. Studies in Science Education, 43, 1-37. doi:10.1080/03057260708560225

[88]   Kleiman, P. (2008). Towards transformation: Conceptions of creativity in higher education. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 209-217. doi:10.1080/14703290802175966

[89]   Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Bianchi, G., & Paiva, V. R. T. D. (2009). Methods that may stimulate creativity and their use in architectural design education. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 20, 453-476. doi:10.1007/s10798-009-9102-z

[90]   Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[91]   Latu, S., & Young, A. (2004). Teaching ICT to pacific island background students. 6th Australasian Computing Education Conference, Dunedin, 18-22 January 2004.

[92]   Lee, Y. W., Pierce, E., Talburt, J., Wang, R. Y., & Zhu, H. (2007). A curriculum for a master of science in information quality. Journal of Information Systems Education, 18, 233-242.

[93]   Lehane, C. S. (2008). The democratic take. Education Next, 8, 56-59.

[94]   Libarkin, J., Elkins, J., & John, K. St. (2009). Editorial: The evolution of JGE: Responding to our community’s needs. Journal of Geoscience Education, 57, 165. doi:10.5408/1.3544260

[95]   Lindsay, D. M. (2010). Organizational liminality and interstitial creativity: The fellowship of power. Social Forces, 89, 163-184. doi:10.1353/sof.2010.0068

[96]   Loehle, C. (1990). A guide to increased creativity in research—Inspi- ration or perspiration? Bioscience, 40, 123. doi:10.2307/1311345

[97]   Loi, D., & Dillon, P. (2006). Adaptive educational environments as creative spaces. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 363-381. doi:10.1080/03057640600865959

[98]   Longo, C. (2010). Fostering creativity or teaching to the test? Implications of state testing on the delivery of science instruction. The Clearing House, 83, 54-57. doi:10.1080/00098650903505399

[99]   Lunn, M., & Noble, A. (2008). Re-visioning science “Love and passion in the scientific imagination”: Art and science. International Journal of Science Education, 30, 793-805. doi:10.1080/09500690701264750

[100]   Luke, A. (1992). Literacy and work in “New Times”. Open Letter, 3, 3-15.

[101]   Lynn, R. (2007). Race differences in intelligence, creativity and creative achievement. Mankind Quarterly, 48, 157-166.

[102]   Lyons, T. (2006). The puzzle of falling enrolments in physics and chemistry courses: Putting some pieces together. Research in Science Education, 36, 285-311. doi:10.1007/s11165-005-9008-z

[103]   Marshall, J. (2005). Connecting art, learning, and creativity: A case for curriculum integration. Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education, 46, 227-241.

[104]   McLaughlin, J. (2006). A gentle reminder that a hypothesis is never proven correct, nor is a theory ever proven to be true. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36, 60.

[105]   McWilliam, E., Poronnik, P., & Taylor, P. G. (2008). Re-designing science pedagogy: Reversing the flight from science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 226-235. doi:10.1007/s10956-008-9092-8

[106]   Medina, M. á. (2006). The pursuit of creativity in biology. BioEssays, 28, 1151-1152. doi:10.1002/bies.20498

[107]   Meier, D. K., Reinhard, K. J., Carter, D. O., & Brooks, D. W. (2008). Simulations with elaborated worked example modeling: Beneficial effects on schema acquisition. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 262-273. doi:10.1007/s10956-008-9096-4

[108]   Milbrandt, M., & Milbrandt, L. (2011). Creativity: What are we talking about? Art Education, 64, 8-13.

[109]   Miller, A. I. (2000). Insights of genius: Imagery and creativity in science and art. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[110]   Mills, K. V., Herrick, R. S., Guilmette, L. W., Nestor, L. P., Shafer, H., & Ditzler, M. A. (2008). Introducing undergraduate students to electrochemistry: A two-week discovery chemistry experiment. Journal of Chemical Education, 85, 1116. doi:10.1021/ed085p1116

[111]   Moore, A. (2009a). Editorial: A new look at the literature—Of understanding, being understood and the role of the review. BioEssays, 31, 3-4. doi:10.1002/bies.200990003

[112]   Moore, A. (2009b). Editorial: The garbage collectors—Could a particular sector of author-pays journals become silently acknowledged collectors of scientific waste? BioEssays, 31, 821. doi:10.1002/bies.200900095

[113]   Mrazik, M., & Dombrowski, S. C. (2010). The neurobiological foundations of giftedness. Roeper Review, 32, 224-234. doi:10.1080/02783193.2010.508154

[114]   Nehm, R. H., & Reilly, L. (2007). Biology majors’ knowledge and misconceptions of natural selection. Bioscience, 57, 263. doi:10.1641/B570311

[115]   Nerad, M., & Heggelund, M. (Eds.) (2008). Toward a global PhD? Forces and forms in doctoral education worldwide. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

[116]   Newton, D. P., & Newton, L. D. (2009). Some student teachers’ conceptions of creativity in school science. Research in Science and Technological Education, 27, 45. doi:10.1080/02635140802658842

[117]   Niaz, M. (2008). What “Ideas-about-Science” should be taught in school science? A chemistry teachers’ perspective. Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 36, 233- 249.

[118]   Ogilvie, D. T., & Simms, S. (2009). The impact of creativity training on an accounting negotiation. Group Decis Negot, 18, 75-87. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9124-z

[119]   Otto, S. (2007). Beneath and beyond Truth: Studying literary narratives to research human phenomena. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 30, 73-87. doi:10.1080/17437270701207801

[120]   Park_Rogers, M. A., & Abell, S. K. (2008). The design, enactment, and experience of inquiry-based instruction in undergraduate science education: A case study. Science Education, 92, 591-607.

[121]   Penaluna, A., Coates, J., & Penaluna, K. (2010). Creativity-based assessment and neural understandings a discussion and case study analysis. Education and Training, 52, 670-678. doi:10.1108/00400911011088971

[122]   Pool, J., Macy, M., McManus, S., & Noh, J. (2008). An exploratory investigation of frequently cited articles from the early childhood intervention literature, 1994 to 2005. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28, 181. doi:10.1177/0271121408321949

[123]   Popper, K. (1959). The logic of scientific discovery. London: Routledge.

[124]   Psycharis, S., & Babaroutsis, C. (2005). Prospective teachers’ conceptual understanding of phenomena related to thermal physics and its evaluation. Journal of Science Education, 6, 40.

[125]   Pugh, K. J., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., Koskey, K. L. K., Stewart, V. C., & Manzey, C. (2009). Motivation, learning, and transformative experience: A study of deep engagement in science. Science Education, 94, 1-27.

[126]   Ramachandran, V. S. (2006). Creativity versus skepticism within science. The Skeptical Inquirer, 30, 48.

[127]   Reeves, C., Chessin, D., & Chambless, M. (2007). Nurturing the nature of science. The Science Teacher, 74, 31.

[128]   Reising, D. (2008). Nursing education research-how to use it to build your promotion and tenure case. Journal of Nursing Education, 47, 387. doi:10.3928/01484834-20080901-02

[129]   Reynolds, J., & Moskovitz, C. (2008). Calibrated peer review assignments in science courses: are they designed to promote critical thinking and writing skills? Journal of College Science Teaching, 38, 60.

[130]   Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., Lillis, J., & Thomas, K. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 168. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9004-7

[131]   Runco, M. A., & Chand, I. (1995). Cognition and creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 243-267. doi:10.1007/BF02213373

[132]   Russ, R. S., Coffey, J. E., Hammer, D., & Hutchison, P. (2009). Making classroom assessment more accountable to scientific reasoning: A case for attending to mechanistic thinking. Science Education, 93, 875-891. doi:10.1002/sce.20320

[133]   Sakai, A., & Leggo, C. (1997). Knowing from different angles: Language arts and science connections. Voices From the Middle, 4, 26-30.

[134]   Salierno, C., Edelson, D., & Sherin, B. (2005). The development of student conceptions of the earth-sun relationship in an inquiry-based curriculum. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 422.

[135]   Santucci, A. P., Lingler, J. P. R. N., Schmidt, K. P., Nolan, B. P., Thatcher, D. P., & Polk, D. P. (2008). Peer-mentored research development meeting: A model for successful peer mentoring among junior level researchers. Academic Psychiatry, 32, 493. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.32.6.493

[136]   Sarath, E. (2006). Meditation, creativity, and consciousness: Charting future terrain within higher education. Teachers College Record, 108, 1816-1841. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00763.x

[137]   Schmidt, A. L. (2010). The battle for creativity: Frontiers in science and science education. BioEssays, 32, 1016-1019. doi:10.1002/bies.201000092

[138]   Seo, H.-A., Lee, E. A., & Kim, K. H. (2005). Korean science teachers’ understanding of creativity in gifted education. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 98-105.

[139]   Settlage, J. (2007). Demythologizing science teacher education: Conquering the false ideal of open inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18, 461-467. doi:10.1007/s10972-007-9060-9

[140]   Shaheen, R. (2010). Creativity and education. Creative Education, 1, 166-169. doi:10.4236/ce.2010.13026

[141]   Shelby, S. C., Ferrier, F., Anderson, D., Burke, G., Hopkins, S., Long, M., Maglen, L., Malley, J., McKenzie, P., & Shah, C. (2001). CEET stocktake. The economics of vocational education and training in Australia. Adelaide: NCVER, ANTA.

[142]   Shen, J., & Confrey, J. (2007). From conceptual change to transformative modeling: A case study of an elementary teacher in learning astronomy. Science Education, 91, 948-966. doi:10.1002/sce.20224

[143]   Sigelman, C. K. (1999). Life-Span Human Development (3rd ed.) Boston: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

[144]   Simon, H. A. (2001). Creativity in the arts and the sciences. The Kenyon Review, 23, 203-220.

[145]   Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, person, and process perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 475-494. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.475

[146]   Skrok, K. (2007). Formations of pupils’ attitudes and behaviours in chemistry teaching/Formación de valores y actitudes de los estudiantes en educación química. Journal of Science Education, 8, 107.

[147]   Smith, S. R., & Abell, S. K. (2008). Assessing and addressing student science ideas. Science and Children, 45, 72.

[148]   Stamp, N. (2007). Overcoming ecological misconceptions. URL (last checked 11 August 2008. http://ecomisconceptions.binghamton.edu/misconceptions.htm

[149]   Stamp, N., & Armstrong, M. (2005). Using “The power of story” to overcome ecological misconceptions and build sophisticated understanding. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 86, 177-183. doi:10.1890/0012-9623(2005)86[177:UTPOST]2.0.CO;2

[150]   Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 3-15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[151]   Stevenson, J. C. (1994). Vocational expertise. In J. Stevenson (Ed.), In cognition at work: The development of vocational expertise. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.

[152]   Stevenson, J. C., & McKavanagh, C.W. (1993). Practice 10, Theory 5: An examination of the depth of learning. SET: Research Information for Teachers, 1993, 4.

[153]   Stredl, H. J., & Rothwell, W. J. (1987). The ASTD reference guide to professional training roles and competencies (Chapter 12, Vol. 1). Amherst, Massachusetts: American Society for Training and Development HRD Press.

[154]   Sweller, J. (2009). Cognitive basis of human creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 11-19. doi:10.1007/s10648-008-9091-6

[155]   Taylor, A., Jones, M., Broadwell, B., & Oppewal, T. (2008). Creativity, inquiry, or accountability? Scientists’ and teachers’ perceptions of science education. Science Education, 92, 1058. doi:10.1002/sce.20272

[156]   Timms, C., Courtney, L., & Anderson, N. (2006). Girls’ perceptions of advanced IT subjects: Are they boring and irrelevant? Australian Educational Computing, 21, 3-7.

[157]   Treffinger, D. J., & Isaksen, S. G. (2005). Creative problem solving: The history, development, and implications for gifted education and talent development. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49, 342. doi:10.1177/001698620504900407

[158]   Ungar, M., Brown, M., Liebenberg, L., Othman, R., Kwong, W. M., Armstrong, M., & Gilgun, J. (2007). Unique pathways to resilience across cultures. Adolescence, 42, 166.

[159]   Wali, A. S. (2006). Correcting student misconceptions. Science Scope, 29, 39.

[160]   Wilkinson, E. (2009). UK doctors hail research excellence results. The Lancet, 373, 368. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60119-7

[161]   Woronov, T. E. (2009). Practices of education reform in Beijing. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 39, 401-422. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1492.2008.00030.x

[162]   Yager, R. E., & Akcay, H. (2008). Comparison of student learning outcomes in middle school science classes with an STS approach and a typical textbook dominated approach. Research in Middle Level Education, 31, 1-16.

[163]   Zhao, Y. (2006). Are we fixing the wrong things? Educational Leadership, 63, 28-31.

 
 
Top