Back
 AAD  Vol.7 No.4 , December 2018
Cognitive and Brain Reserve (CBR) Tools to Reduce the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer
Abstract: The study was performed to examine and assess the impact of the education, occupation and leisure time on building brain and cognitive reserves (CBR). A cross sectional study of 132 persons at age between 40 to 70 years old has been conducted. A structured questionnaire covering multiple constructs was used to collect the data. Multivariate regression results show that the three independent variables (LE, OC and ED) were statistically significant in the models with CBR as dependent variable. Leisure time and activities (LE) make the strongest unique contribution (0.683) followed by occupation (0.261) and the weak contribution of the education (0.198) to explain the dependent variable cognitive and brain reserve (CBR). The Brain and Cognitive Reserve hypothesesassumes that a rich intellectual measures and abilities a person have during her/his life enable this person to cope with difficult cognitive tasks and social events in life.
Cite this paper: Zineldin, M. (2018) Cognitive and Brain Reserve (CBR) Tools to Reduce the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, 7, 93-102. doi: 10.4236/aad.2018.74007.
References

[1]   Zineldin, M., Vashicheva, V. and Zineldin, J. (2014) Total Medical and Healthcare Quality, Satisfaction and Patient Safety. International Journal of Medical Sciences and Health Care, 2, 2-10.

[2]   (2015) The Global Impact of Dementia. An Analysis of Prevalence, Incidence, Cost and Trends. World Alzheimer Report.
https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf

[3]   Hebert, L.E., Weuve, J., Scherr, P.A. and Evans, D.A. (2013) Alzheimer Disease in the United States (2010-2050) Estimated Using the 2010 Census. Neurology, 80, 1778-1783.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828726f5

[4]   Swedish Dementia Centre Demenscentrum.
http://www.demenscentrum.se/Fakta-om-demens/Vad-ar-demens

[5]   Abyad, A. (2015) Alzheimer’s in the Middle East. JSM Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia, 2, 1012.

[6]   Post, S.G. (1999) Future Scenarios for the Prevention and Delay of Alzheimer Disease Onset in High-Risk Groups: An Ethical Perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 16, 105-110.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00139-1

[7]   Schmand, B., Smit, J.H., Geerlings, M.I. and Lindeboom, J. (1977) The Effects of Intelligence and Education on the Development of Dementia. A Test of the Brain Reserve Hypothesis. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1337-1344.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291797005461

[8]   Tucker, A.M. and Stern, Y. (2011) Cognitive Reserve in Aging. Current Alzheimer Research, 8, 354-360.

[9]   Valenzuela, M.J. and Sachdev, P. (2006) Brain Reserve and Dementia: A Systematic Review. Psychological Medicine, 36, 441-454.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291705006264

[10]   Nucci, M., Mapelli, D. and Modinil, S. (2011) Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIQ): A New Instrument for Measuring Cognitive Reserve. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 218-226.

[11]   Katzman, R., Terry, R., Deteresa, R., et al. (1988) Clinical, Pathological, and Neurochemical Changes in Dementia: A Subgroup with Preserved Mental Status and Numerous Neocortical Plaques. Annals of Neurology, 23, 138-144.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410230206

[12]   Gulmann, N. (2003) Geronto-Psykiatri. Studentlitteratur, Lund.

[13]   Stern, Y. (2009) Cognitive Reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2015-2028.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004

[14]   Keller, J.N. (2006) Age-Related Neuropathology, Cognitive Decline, and Alzheimer’s Disease. Ageing Research Reviews, 5, 1-13.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2005.06.002

[15]   Kramer, A.F., Bherer, L., Colcombe, S.J., Dong, W. and Greenough, W.T. (2002) Cognitive Decline Is Related to Education and Occupation in a Spanish Elderly Cohort. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 14, 132-142.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324426

[16]   Abbott, R.D., White, L.R., Ross, G.W., Petrovitch, H., Masaki, K.H., Snowdon, D.A. and Curb, J.D. (1988) Height as a Marker of Childhood Development and Late-Life Cognitive Function: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Pediatrics, 102, 602-609.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.102.3.602

[17]   Bickel, H. and Kurz, A. (2009) Education, Occupation, and Dementia: The Bavarian School Sisters Study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27, 548-556.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000227781

[18]   Salthouse, T.A. (2006) Mental Exercise and Mental Aging: Evaluating the Validity of the “Use It or Lose It” Hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 68-87.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00005.x

[19]   Verghese, J., Lipton, R., Katz, M., Hall, C., et al. (2003) Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 2508-2516.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa022252

[20]   Podewils, L.J., Guallar, E., Kuller, L.H., et al. (2006) Physical Activity, APOE Genotype, and Dementia Risk: Findings from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161, 639-651.

[21]   Cotman, C.W. and Engesser-Cesar, C. (2002) Exercise Enhances and Protects Brain Function. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 30, 75-79.
https://doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200204000-00006

[22]   National Chronic Care Consortium and the Alzheimer’s Association (2003) Scales and Tools for Early Identification of Dementia.

[23]   Missotten, P., Dupuis, G. and Adam, S. (2016) Dementia-Specific Quality of Life Instruments: A Conceptual Analysis. International Psychogeriatric, 28, 1245-1262.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610216000417

[24]   Ettema, T.P., Droes, R.-M., de Lange, J., Mellenbergh, J. and Ribbe, M.W. (2005) A Review of Quality of Life Instruments Used in Dementia. Quality of Life Research, 14, 675-686.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-004-1258-0

[25]   Hair, J.F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R.E. and Tatham, R.L. (2010) Multivariate DataAnalysis: A Global Perspective. Pearson Education Inc., London.

[26]   Jicha, G.A. and Rentz, D.M. (2013) Cognitive and Brain Reserve and the Diagnosis and Treatment of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease. Neurology, 80, 1180-1181.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e318289714a

[27]   Foubert-Samier, A., Catheline, G., Amieva, H., Dilharreguy, B., Helmer, C., Allard, M. and Dartigues, J.F. (2012) Education, Occupation, Leisure Activities, and Brain Reserve: A Population-Based Study. Neurobiology of Aging, 33, 15-25.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.09.023

[28]   Takechi, S., Yoshimura, K., Oguma, Y., Saito, Y. and Mimura, M. (2017) Relationship between Social Capital and Cognitive Functions among Community-Based Elderly. Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 6, 45-51.
https://doi.org/10.4236/aad.2017.62004

 
 
Top