Back
 APD  Vol.7 No.3 , August 2018
On Heredity Factors of Parkinson’s Disease: A Parametric and Bayesian Analysis
Abstract: Hereditary is one of the key risk factors of the Parkinson’s disease (PD) and children of individuals with the Parkinson’s carry a two-fold risk for the disease. In this article, chance of developing the Parkinson’s disease is estimated for an individual in five types of families. That is, families with negative history of the PD (I), families with positive history where neither one of the parents (II), one of the parents (III-IV), or both parents (V) are diagnosed with the disease. After a sophisticated modeling, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Approach are used to estimate the chance of developing the Parkinson’s in the five mentioned family types. It is extremely important knowing such probabilities as the individual can take precautionary measures to defy the odds. While many physicians have provided medical opinions on chance of developing the PD, our study is one of the first to provide statistical modeling and analysis with real data to support the conclusions.
Cite this paper: Saghafi, A. , Tsokos, C. and Wooten, R. (2018) On Heredity Factors of Parkinson’s Disease: A Parametric and Bayesian Analysis. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 7, 31-42. doi: 10.4236/apd.2018.73004.
References

[1]   Parkinson’s Disease Foundation.
http://www.pdf.org/about_pd

[2]   Aarsland, D. and Kramberger, G.M. (2015) Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 5, 659-667.
https://doi.org/10.3233/JPD-150604

[3]   Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) Database.
https://www.ppmi-info.org/data

[4]   Gwinn, K. (2009) Genetics and Parkinson’s Disease: What Have We Learned? Winter 2009 Newsletter of Parkinson’s Disease Foundation Inc.

[5]   Priyadarshia, A., Khudera, S.A., Schauba, E.A. and Priyadarshi, S.S. (2001) Environmental Risk Factors and Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Environmental Research, 86, 122-127.
https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2001.4264

[6]   Marder, K., Tang, M.X., Mejia, H., Alfaro, B., Cote, L., Louis, E., Groves, J. and Mayeux, R. (1996) Risk of Parkinson’s Disease among first-Degree Relatives. Neurology, 47, 155-160.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.47.1.155

[7]   De Lau, M.L. and Breteler, M. (2006) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease. The Lancet Neurology, 5, 525-535.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70471-9

[8]   Gorell, J.M., Peterson, E.L., Rybicki, B.A. and Johnson, C.C. (2004) Multiple Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 217, 169-174.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2003.09.014

[9]   Cilia, R., Siri, C., Rusconi, D., Allegra, R., Ghiglietti, A., Sacilotto, G., Zini, M., Zecchinelli, A.L., Asselta, R., Duga, S., Paganoni, A.M., Pezzoli, G., Seia, M. and Goldwurm, S. (2014) LRRK2 Mutations in Parkinson’s Disease: Confirmation of a Gender Effect in the Italian Population. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20, 911-914.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.04.016

[10]   Saunders, R., Stanley, K., San Luciano, M., Barrett, M.J., Shanker, V., Raymond, D., Ozelius, L.J. and Bressman, S.B. (2012) Gender Differences in the Risk of Familial Parkinsonism: Beyond LRRK2. Neuroscience Letters, 496, 125-128.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2011.03.098

[11]   Sullivan, K.L., Mortimer, J.A., Wang, W., Zesiewicz, T.A., Brownlee, H.J. and Borenstein, A.R. (2015) Occupational Characteristics and Patterns as Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Control Study. Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 5, 813-820.
https://doi.org/10.3233/JPD-150635

[12]   Taylor, C.A., SaintHilaire, M.H., Cupples, L.A., Thomas, C.A., Burchard, A.E., Feldman, R.G. and Myers, R.H. (1999) Environmental, Medical, and Family History Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease: A New England-Based Case Control Study. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88, 742-749.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19991215)88:6<742::AID-AJMG29>3.0.CO;2-#

[13]   Michael, J. (2017) Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, Questions and Answers.
https://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/i-have-got-what.php

 
 
Top