CUS  Vol.6 No.4 , December 2018
Impoverishment Risks in DIDR in Dar es Salaam City: The Case of Airport Expansion Project
Contrary to the State’s rhetoric of inclusive governance, urban poor is excluded from planning for infrastructure development and resettlement processes, leading to a lack of understanding of their needs by the state resulting to their subsequent impoverishment after resettlement. This paper discusses impoverishment risks experienced by massive population resettlements from airport expansion project in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. The risks experienced were outcomes of procedures followed and policies/acts adopted in the implementation process. Literature on impoverishment risks experienced during displacement shows that poorly managed displacement processes and lack of adherence to policies and guidelines exposed the affected population to impoverishment risks for both short and long terms. The actualization of the risks depends on the preparedness of the project implementers or the government’s enforcement bodies in implementing the resettlement project. This paper draws empirical evidences obtained from studies conducted in 2014 and 2017. It discusses eleven impoverishment risks experienced by both the displaced and hosting communities at different periods and magnitudes. The paper argues that the displaced poor households have been further impoverished in the course of resettlement process as a result of limited attention to the risks of impoverishment both in policies and in local government practices. This paper realises that there is an urgent need for a resettlement policy which insists on participation of the affected communities that would eliminate impoverishment risks.
Cite this paper: Magembe-Mushi, D. (2018) Impoverishment Risks in DIDR in Dar es Salaam City: The Case of Airport Expansion Project. Current Urban Studies, 6, 433-454. doi: 10.4236/cus.2018.64024.

[1]   Africa Development Bank, AfDB (2003). Involuntary Resettlement Policy. PSDU.

[2]   Cernea, M. M. (1996a). Bridging the Research Divide: Studying Development Oustees. In T. Allen (Ed.), In Search of Cool Ground: War, Flight and Homecoming in Northeast Africa. London: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Africa World Press and James Currey.

[3]   Cernea, M. M. (1996b). Understanding and Preventing Impoverishment from Displacement: Reflections on the State of Knowledge. In C. McDowell (Ed.), Understanding Impoverishment: The Consequences of Development Induced Displacement. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.

[4]   Cernea, M. M., & McDowell, C. (Eds.) (2000). Risks and Reconstruction: Experiences of Resettlers and Refugees’. Washington DC: World Bank.

[5]   Downing, T. E. (2002). Avoiding New Poverty: Mining-Induced Displacement and Resettlement. MMSD No 58. IIED and WBCSD.

[6]   FAO (2008). Compulsory Acquisition of Land and Compensation, Land Tenure Studies 10. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO).

[7]   Hooper, M., & Ortolano, L. (2012). Confronting Urban Displacement: Social Movement Participation and Post-Eviction Resettlement Success in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 32, 3.

[8]   Magembe-Mushi, D. L. (2011). Resettling Displaced Residents from Regularised Settlements in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania: The Case of Community Infrastructure Upgrading Program (CIUP). Published Licentiate Thesis in Infrastructure, Planning and Plan Implementation. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology.

[9]   Magembe-Mushi, D. L. (2014). Mass Population Resettlement of Displaced Communities: A Case of Airport Expansion Project in Dar Es Salaam City. PhD Thesis, Ardhi University. (Unpublished)

[10]   Magembe-Mushi, D. L., & Lupala, J. M. (2015). Does Size Matters? Displacement Processes Applied in Urban Development Projects in Dar es Salaam City. Journal of Building and Land Development, 18, 87-107.

[11]   National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Office of Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), Zanzibar (2013). 2012 Population and Housing Census: Population Distribution by Administrative Units, Key Findings. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: NBS and OCGS.

[12]   Patel, S., Sliuzas R., & Mathur, V. (2015). The Risk of Impoverishment in Urban Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement in Ahmedabad. Environment & Urbanization. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 27, 231-256.

[13]   Robinson, W. C. (2003). Risks and Rights: The Causes, Consequences and Challenges of Development-Induced Displacement. The Brookings Institute-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement. An Occasional Paper. Washington DC: The Brookings Institute.

[14]   Stanley, J. (2004). Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement. Expert Guide. Oxford: Forced Migration Online.

[15]   Tanzania Airports Authority (TAA) (2010). Bulletin.

[16]   The World Bank (2001). Operational Policies OP4.12, Involuntary Resettlement (New York: World Bank Operational Manual). Washington DC: World Bank.

[17]   United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (1997). National Land Policy (2nd ed.). Dar es Salaam: URT.

[18]   United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (1999). The Land Act of 1999. Dar es Salaam: UTR.

[19]   United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (2005). The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977. Dar es Salaam: URT.