Back
 AJPS  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2018
Assessment of Metal Accumulation in the Vegetables and Associated Health Risk in the Upper-Most Ganga-Yamuna Doab Region, India
Abstract: The present study indicates the status of metal contamination in the vegetables/crops grown in the upper most Ganga-Yamuna doab region of India and associated health risk. Commonly grown vegetables and crops were sampled and analyzed for the metal contamination. Maximum concentration (mg/kg) of Cd and Cr, was observed in Radish (7.6) and Cabbage (56.24) respectively, whereas maximum concentration of Pb, Ni and Zn was observed in the edible parts of Mustard plant (95.4, 58.6, 756.43 respectively). Bio-concentration factor (BCF) value indicated the transfer level of metal from soil to crop; indicated high transfer value of Cd in Radish followed by cabbage and spinach. Considerably high BCF value was observed in the Mustard (8.13), Cabbage (4.18) and radish (3.07) for Zn contamination. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and Hazard quotient (HQ) or Non-carcinogenic health risk was calculated using the USEPA method. The result revealed that the metal intake and associated health risk were considerably high in the children population in comparison to the adult population.
Cite this paper: Gaurav, V. , Kumar, D. and Sharma, C. (2018) Assessment of Metal Accumulation in the Vegetables and Associated Health Risk in the Upper-Most Ganga-Yamuna Doab Region, India. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 2347-2358. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.912170.
References

[1]   Zheng, N., Wang, Q., Zhang, X., Zheng, D., Zhang, Z. and Zhang, S. (2007) Population Health Risk Due to Dietary Intake of Heavy Metals in the Industrial Area of Huludao City, China. Science of the Total Environment, 387, 96-104.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.044

[2]   Chabukdhara, M., Munjal, A., Nema, A.K., Gupta, S.K. and Kaushal, R. (2015) Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables Grown around Peri-Urban and Urban-Industrial Clusters in Ghaziabad, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22, 736-752.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2015.1105723

[3]   Singh, R.P. and Agrawal, M. (2010) Variations in Heavy Metal Accumulation, Growth and Yield of Rice Plants Grown at Different Sewage Sludge Amendment Rates. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73, 632-641.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.01.020

[4]   Kumar, M., Ramanathan, A., Tripathi, R., Farswan, S., Kumar, D. and Bhattacharya, P. (2017) A Study of Trace Element Contamination Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Health Risk Assessment in Groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Chemosphere, 166, 135-145.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.086

[5]   Liu, J., Duan, C.Q., Zhu, Y.N., Zhang, X.H. and Wang, C.X. (2007) Effect of Chemical Fertilizers on the Fractionation of Cu, Cr and Ni in Contaminated Soil. Environmental Geology, 52, 1601-1606.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0604-7

[6]   Pandey, R., Shubhashish, K. and Pandey, J. (2012) Dietary Intake of Pollutant Aerosols via Vegetables Influenced by Atmospheric Deposition and Wastewater Irrigation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 76, 200-208.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.10.004

[7]   Ministry of MSME (2015) Brief Industrial Profile of District Saharanpur. 1-18.

[8]   Agrawal, P., Mittal, A., Prakash, R., Kumar, M., Singh, T.B. and Tripathi, S.K. (2010) Assessment of Contamination of Soil Due to Heavy Metals around Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants at Singrauli Region of India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 85, 219-223.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0043-8

[9]   USEPA (1996) Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Siliceous and Organically Based Matrices.

[10]   Pandey, B., Suthar, S. and Singh, V. (2016) Accumulation and Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Sugarcane Irrigated with Industrial Effluent in Some Rural Areas of Uttarakhand, India. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 102, 655-666.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2016.05.024

[11]   USEPA-U.S. (2005) Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, 630, 22-58.

[12]   Arora, M., Kiran, B., Rani, S., Rani, A., Kaur, B. and Mittal, N. (2008) Heavy Metal Accumulation in Vegetables Irrigated with Water from Different Sources. Food Chemistry, 111, 811-815.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.049

[13]   USEPA-IRISD (1993) Reference Dose (RfD): Description and Use in Health Risk Assessments.

[14]   Awasthi, S.K. (2000) Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (Act No. 37 of 1954), Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999. 3rd Edition, Ashoka Law House, New Delhi.

[15]   WHO/FAO (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization) (2007) Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission Twenty-Seventh Session Report of the Thirty-Sixth Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene.

[16]   Fazeli, M.S., Khosravan, F., Hossini, M., Sathyanarayan, S. and Satish, P.N. (1998) Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Paddy Crops Irrigated by Paper Mill Effluents Near Nanjangud, Mysore District, Karnatake, India. Environmental Geology, 34, 297-302.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050281

[17]   Chhonkar, P.K., Datta, S.P., Loshi, H.C. and Pathak, H. (2000) Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Health and Agriculture-Indian Experience: Part I—Distillery and Paper Mill Effluents. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 59, 350-361.

[18]   Nagajyoti, P.C., Lee, K.D. and Sreekanth, T.V.M. (2010) Heavy Metals, Occurrence and Toxicity for Plants: A Review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 8, 199-216.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-010-0297-8

[19]   Pandey, J., Pandey, R. and Shubhashish, K. (2009) Air-Borne Heavy Metal Contamination to Dietary Vegetables: A Case Study from India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 83, 931-936.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9879-1

 
 
Top