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 AiM  Vol.8 No.10 , October 2018
Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Chitterlings, Raw Milk and Swine Fecal Samples
Abstract: Foodborne illness is an escalating concern upon public health. The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica was assessed in chitterlings, raw milk and swine fecal from North Carolina. Uncleaned thirty chitterling samples procured from a local grocery store, forty-five swine fecal samples, and forty unpasteurized cow milk samples supplied by the University farm were evaluated for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Isolates identified as presumptive positive were characterized as colonies with a pink or deep-red center on MacConkey and CIN agar, and verified further through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 16S rRNA gene for the Yersinia genera. Results showed that 4.4% swine fecal samples, 7.5% milk samples and 11.3% chitterling samples were presumptive positive for Y. enterocolitica by the direct plating method on selective agars. Of the thirty-chitterling samples examined by PCR for the 16S rRNA gene, 26% samples contained the identification gene for the bacteria of interest. After conducting virulence tests, the fecal samples were revealed as non-pathogenic. Only one of the milk samples were considered pathogenic and consisted of the following virulent genes: Yersinia heat-stable toxin (yst), invasion (inv), attachment invasion locus (ail), virulence regulon transcriptional activator (virF), Yersinia adehesin A (yadA), and the O:3 antigen gene (rfbC). Seven out of the eight (87.5%) chitterling samples were shown to be pathogenic. Disc diffusion was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Over half (55.5%) of the antimicrobial agents were found effective, with isolates being completely susceptible to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, trimethoprim, cefotaxime, and gentamycin. Ampicillin was determined to be least effective, where 84.6% of the samples presented resistance to the drug. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ERIC-PCR techniques were used to evaluate genetic similarity among the Yersinia isolates. There was approximately 85% similarity between two chitterlings and a fecal isolate during RAPD testing. With ERIC-PCR the largest similarity among all samples was at 95%, which was found between isolates from a chitterling and milk sample. Chitterling samples showed the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica compared to the other samples. Cross contamination at the farm level could be the root cause of this pathogen being prevalent in farm animal and food sources, which does pose a risk to public human health when food is improperly prepared.
Cite this paper: Drake, F. , Davis, S. , Khatiwada, J. and Williams, L. (2018) Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Chitterlings, Raw Milk and Swine Fecal Samples. Advances in Microbiology, 8, 804-820. doi: 10.4236/aim.2018.810053.
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