AS  Vol.9 No.10 , October 2018
Factors Impacting Corn (Zea mays L.) Establishment and the Role of Uniform Establishment on Yield
Abstract: Information from actual farm fields can help corn producers understand the value and importance of establishing uniform crop emergence and within-row plant spacing. Thirty-eight fields planted with corn (Zea mays L.) by North Dakota producers were evaluated to determine the effects of uneven plant emergence timing and within-row plant space variability, as well as identifying contributing factors. Rows within a planter’s width with the most variability yielded 6% less than the least variable rows. Individual ear weights decreased as the number of days after normal emergence (date when 50% of plant stand emerged) increased. Ears next to within-row gaps (>30.5 cm) weighed 11% more than the normally spaced plants. Combined ears from both plants situated <5.1 cm apart weighed 36% more than from a single ear from normally spaced plants. Surface residue and planting speed impacted stand establishment variability more often than other factors measured. Producers should assess each field environment individually in order to identify best practices to achieve uniform stand establishment.
Cite this paper: Novak, L. and Ransom, J. (2018) Factors Impacting Corn (Zea mays L.) Establishment and the Role of Uniform Establishment on Yield. Agricultural Sciences, 9, 1317-1336. doi: 10.4236/as.2018.910092.

[1]   Carter, P.R., Nafziger, E.D. and Lauer, J.G. (2001) Uneven Emergence in Corn. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 344.

[2]   Liu, W., Tollenaar, M., Stewart, G. and Deen, W. (2004) Response of Corn Grain Yield to Spatial and Temporal Variability in Emergence. Crop Science, 44, 847-854.

[3]   Maddonni, G.A. and Otegui, M.E. (2004) Intra-Specific Competition in Maize: Early Establishment of Hierarchies among Plants Affects Final Kernel Set. Field Crops Research, 85, 1-13.

[4]   Nafzinger, E.D., Carter, P.R. and Graham, E.E. (1991) Response of Corn to Uneven Emergence. Crop Science, 31, 811-815.

[5]   Doerge, T.D., Jeschke, M. and Carter, P. (2015) Planting Outcome Effects on Corn Yield. Dupont Pioneer Agronomy Services, Crop Insight, 25:1.

[6]   Nielsen, D.L. (2001) Stand Establishment Variability in Corn. Department of Agronomy Publication AGRY-91-01, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

[7]   Saab, I. (2012) Stress Emergence in Corn. Pioneer Crop Insights 22:8.

[8]   Nielsen, D.L. (2015) Requirements for Uniform Germination of Emergence of Corn. Purdue University Department of Agronomy Corny News Network.

[9]   Liu, W., Tollenaar, M., Stewart, G. and Deen, W. (2004) Impact of Planter Type, Planting Speed, and Tillage on Stand Uniformity and Yield of Corn. Agronomy Journal, 96, 1668-1672.

[10]   Lauer, J.G. and Rankin, M. (2004) Corn Response to Within Row Plant Spacing Variation. Agronomy Journal, 96, 1464-1468.

[11]   Nielsen, D.L. (2014) The Emergence Process in Corn. Purdue University Department of Agronomy Corny News Network.

[12]   Beal, D.J. (2007) Information Criteria Methods in SAS for Multiple Linear Regression Models. SESUG 2007: The Proceedings of the South East SAS Users Group, Hilton Head, SC, 2007.

[13]   NASS USDA National Agriculture Statistics Service, United States Department of Agriculture (2013) North Dakota Crop Progress and Condition Report. Washington DC.

[14]   NDAWN North Dakota Agriculture Weather Network (2015) Monthly Data Table Form.

[15]   Duiker, S.W. (2002) Diagnosing Soil Compaction Using a Soil Penetrometer. Penn State Extension Agronomy Fact Sheet 63.

[16]   Stoll, M. and Saab, I. (2010) Maximizing Corn Emergence and Uniformity in High Residue Fields. Dupont Pioneer Agronomy Services Crop Insights 20:10.

[17]   Duvick, D.N. (1997) What Is Yield? In: Edmeades, G.O., et al., Eds., Developing Drought and Low N-Tolerant Corn, CIMMYT, El Batan, 332-335.

[18]   Boomsma, C.R., Santini, J.B., West, T.D., Brewer, J.C., McIntyre, L.M. and Vyn, T.J. (2010) Maize Grain Yield Responses to Plant Height Variability Resulting From Crop rotation and Tillage System in a Long-Term Experiment. Soil and Tillage Research, 106, 227-240.

[19]   Ramazan, M., Khan, G.D., Hanif, M. and Ali, S. (2012) Impact of Soil Compaction on Root Length and Yield of Corn (Zea mays) under Irrigated Condition. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11, 382-385.