Back
 MSA  Vol.9 No.11 , October 2018
Optimization of 6,13Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pentacene) Organic Field Effect Transistor: Annealing Temperature and Solvent Effects
Abstract: In this contribution, we report on the effect of solvents with different boiling points and annealing temperature on the performance of TIPS-pentacene transistors. Several solvents have been used for TIPS-pentacene thin film processing: toluene, chlorobenzene and tetrahy-drofuran. To study the influence of solvent and temperature; the electrical parameters of TIPS-pentacene field effect transistor were measured. The highest values of mobilities were 7.1 × 10-3 cm2·V-1·s-1, 4.5 × 10-3 cm2·V-1·s-1 and 1.43 × 10-3 cm2·V-1·s-1 respectively for TIPS-pentacene field effect transistor using chlorobenzene, toluene and tetrahydrofuran and annealed respectively at 120°C, 150°C and 120°C. We have correlated these electrical performances with AFM images in order to point out the role of morphological properties. It is found that the grain size, and roughness highly affect the electrical parameters.
Cite this paper: Kadri, D. , Karim, D. , Seck, M. , Diouma, K. and Marcel, P. (2018) Optimization of 6,13Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pentacene) Organic Field Effect Transistor: Annealing Temperature and Solvent Effects. Materials Sciences and Applications, 9, 900-912. doi: 10.4236/msa.2018.911065.
References

[1]   Feng, L., Tang, W., Zhao, J., Cui, Q., Jiang, C. and Guo, X. (2014) All-Solution-Processed Low-Voltage Organic Thin-Film Transistor Inverter on Plastic Substrate. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 61, 1175-1180.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2014.2303992

[2]   Raghuwanshi, V., Bharti, D. and Tiwari, S.P. (2016) Flexible Organic Field-Effect Transistors with TIPS-Pentacene Crystals Exhibiting High Electrical Stability upon Bending. Organic Electronics, 31, 177-182.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2016.01.030

[3]   Shin, S.-I., Kwon, J.-H., Kang, H. and Ju, B.-K. (2008) Solution-Processed 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with a Polymer Dielectric on a Flexible Substrate. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 23, 0850091-0850094.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0268-1242/23/8/085009

[4]   McCulloch, I., Heeney, M., Bailey, C., Genevicius, K., MacDonald, I., Shkunov, M., Sparrowe, D., Tierney, S., Wagner, R., Zhang, W., Chabinyc, M., Kline, R.J., McGehee, M.D. and Toney, M. (2006) Liquid-Crystalline Semiconducting Polymers with High Charge-Carrier Mobility. Nature Materials, 5, 328-333.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1612

[5]   Chen, J., Martin, D.C. and Anthony, J.E. (2007) Morphology and Molecular Orientation of Thin-Film bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) Pentacene. Journal of Materials Research, 22, 1701-1709.
https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2007.0220

[6]   Park, S.K., Mourey, D.A., Han, J.-I., Anthony, J.E. and Jackson, T.N. (2009) Environmental and Operational Stability of Solution-Processed 6,13-bis(triisopropyl- silylethynyl)pentacene Thin Film Transistors. Organic Electronics, 10, 486-490.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2009.02.007

[7]   Park, S.K., Jackson, T.N., Anthony, J.E. and Mourey, D.A. (2007) High Mobility Solution Processed 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl)pentacene Organic Thin Film Transistors. Applied Physics Letters, 91, 0635141-0635143.
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2768934

[8]   Giri, G., Miller, E. and Bao, Z. (2014) Selective Solution Shearing Deposition of High Performance TIPS-Pentacene Polymorphs through Chemical Patterning. Journal of Materials Research, 29, 2615-2624.
https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.305

[9]   Park, M., Min, Y., Lee, Y.-J. and Jeong, U. (2014) Growth of Long Triisopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene (TIPS-PEN) Nanofibrils in a Polymer Thin Film during Spin-Coating. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 35, 655-660.
https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201300837

[10]   Keum, C.-M., Kwon, J.-H., Lee, S.-D. and Bae, J.-H. (2013) Control of the Molecular Order and Cracks of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene on a Polymeric Insulator by Anisotropic Solvent Drying. Solid-State Electronics, 89, 189-193.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sse.2013.08.010

[11]   Sakamoto, K., Bulgarevich, K. and Miki, K. (2014) Small Device-to-Device Variation of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene Field-Effect Transistor Arrays Fabricated by a Flow-Coating Method. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53, 02BE011-02BE016.
https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.53.02BE01

[12]   Hwang, D.K., Fuentes-Hernandez, C., Berrigan, J.D., Fang, Y., Kim, J., Potscavage, W.J., Cheun, H., Sandhage, K.H. and Kippelen, B. (2012) Solvent and Polymer Matrix Effects on TIPS-Pentacene/Polymer Blend Organic Field-Effect Transistors. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22, 5531-5537.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c2jm16487f

[13]   Wang, K., Chen, R., Zhuang, F., Chen, C., Su, S. and Xiang, Y. (2015) Study of Triisopropylsilyl Pentacene Thin Film and Its Interfacial Properties for Device Applications. Thin Solid Films, 584, 359-362.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2015.01.054

[14]   Sim, K., Choi, H., Cho, S. and Yoon, S.C. (2009) Soluble Pentacene Thin-Film Transistor Using a High Solvent and Heat Resistive Polymeric Dielectric with Low-Temperature Processability and Its Long-Term Stability. Organic Electronics, 10, 506-510.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2008.12.016

[15]   Cho, S.Y., Ko, J.M., Lim, J., Lee, J.Y. and Lee, C. (2013) Inkjet-Printed Organic Thin Film Transistors Based on TIPS Pentacene with Insulating Polymers. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 1, 914-923.
https://doi.org/10.1039/C2TC00360K

[16]   Akkerman, H.B., Li, H. and Bao, Z. (2012) TIPS-Pentacene Crystalline Thin Film Growth. Organic Electronics, 13, 2056-2062.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2012.06.019

[17]   Fichou, D., Demanze, F., Horowitz, G., Hajlaoui, R., Constant, M. and Gamier, F. (1997) Structural, Spectroscopic and Device Characteristics of Octithiophene. Synthetic Metals, 85, 1309-1312.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779(97)80253-6

[18]   Kim, M.J., Heo, H.W., Suh, Y.K. and Song, C.K. (2011) Morphology Control of TIPS-Pentacene Grains with Inert Gas Injection and Effects on the Performance of OTFTs. Organic Electronics, 12, 1170-1176.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2011.03.034

[19]   Kang, S.-J., Song, S., Liu, C., Kim, D.-Y. and Noh, Y.-Y. (2014) Evolution in Crystal Structure and Electrical Performance of Thiophene-Based Polymer Field Effect Transistors: A Remarkable Difference between Thermal and Solvent Vapor Annealing. Organic Electronics, 15, 1972-1982.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2014.05.026

[20]   Alberga, P.A., Ciofini, I., Mangiatordi, G.F., Lattanzi, G. and Adamo, C. (2015) Morphological and Charge Transport Properties of Amorphous and Crystalline P3HT and PBTTT: Insights from Theory. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17, 18742-18750.
https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CP02769A

[21]   Dinelli, F., Murgia, M., Biscarini, F. and De Leeuw, D.M. (2004) Thermal Annealing Effects on Morphology and Electrical Response in Ultrathin Film Organic Transistors. Synthetic Metals, 146, 373-376.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2004.08.016

[22]   Tsao, H.N. and Müllen, K. (2010) Improving Polymer Transistor Performance via Morphology Control. Chemical Society Reviews, 39, 2372-2386.
https://doi.org/10.1039/b918151m

[23]   Garnier, F., Deloffre, F., Horowitz, G. and Hajlaoui, R. (1993) Structure Effect on Transport of Charge Carriers in Conjugated Oligomers. Synthetic Metals, 57, 4747-4754.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-6779(93)90812-B

[24]   Vakhshouri, K. and Gomez, E.D. (2012) Effect of Crystallization Kinetics on Microstructure and Charge Transport of Polythiophenes. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 33, 2133-2137.
https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201200531

[25]   Ahn, T., Jung, H., Suk, H.J. and Yi, M.H. (2009) Effect of Postfabrication Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Performance of Pentacene Organic Thin-Film Transistors. Synthetic Metals, 159, 1277-1280.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.02.023

[26]   Lassnig, R., Hollerer, M., Striedinger, B., Fian, A., Stadlober, B. and Winkler, A. (2015) Optimizing Pentacene Thin-Film Transistor Performance: Temperature and Surface Condition Induced Layer Growth Modification. Organic Electronics, 26, 420-428.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2015.08.016

[27]   Pingel, P., Zen, A., Abellón, R.D., Grozema, F.C., Siebbeles, L.D. and Neher, D. (2010) Temperature-Resolved Local and Macroscopic Charge Carrier Transport in Thin P3HT Layers. Advanced Functional Materials, 20, 2286-2295.
https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200902273

[28]   Qadir, K.W., Ahmad, Z. and Sulaiman, K. (2015) Thermal Annealing Effect on the Optical, Electrical and Morphological Properties of the PBTTT-C12:PC71BM Blend Films. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 137, Article ID: 034503.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4029230

[29]   Cho, S., Lee, K., Yuen, J., Wang, G., Moses, D., Heeger, A.J., Surin, M. and Lazzaroni, R. (2006) Thermal Annealing-Induced Enhancement of the Field-Effect Mobility of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Films. Journal of Applied Physics, 100, Article ID: 114503.
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2400796

[30]   Kim, C.S., Lee, S., Gomez, E.D., Anthony, J.E. and Loo, Y.-L. (2008) Solvent-Dependent Electrical Characteristics and Stability of Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Drop Cast Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) Pentacene. Applied Physics Letters, 93, Article ID: 103302.
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2979691

[31]   Chae, G.J., Jeong, S.-H., Baek, J.H., Walker, B., Song, C.K. and Seo, J.H. (2013) Improved Performance in TIPS-Pentacene Field Effect Transistors Using Solvent Additives. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 1, 4216-4221.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c3tc30506f

[32]   Kim, H., Bae, J.-H., Horowitz, G., Kim, W.Y. and Choi, Y. (2013) Effects of the Solvent Polarity of a Polymeric Insulator on Field-Effect Mobility in an Organic Thin-Film Transistor. Solid-State Electronics, 81, 140-143.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sse.2012.12.014

[33]   Kim, Y.-H., Lee, Y.U., Han, J.-I., Han, S.-M. and Han, M.-K. (2007) Influence of Solvent on the Film Morphology, Crystallinity and Electrical Characteristics of Triisopropylsilyl Pentacene OTFTs. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 154, H995-H998.
https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2783765

[34]   Gaikwad, A.M., Khan, Y., Ostfeld, A.E., Pandya, S., Abraham, S. and Arias, A.C. (2016) Identifying Orthogonal Solvents for Solution Processed Organic Transistors. Organic Electronics, 30, 18-29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2015.12.008

[35]   Wang, S., Tang, J.-C., Zhao, L.-H., Png, R.-Q., Wong, L.-Y., Chia, P.-J., Chan, H.S.O., Ho, P.K.-H. and Chua, L.-L. (2008) Solvent Effects and Multiple Aggregate States in High-Mobility Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Poly(bithiophene-alt-thienothiophene). Applied Physics Letters, 93, 1621031-1621033.
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3001574

[36]   Abu-Sen, L., Morrison, J.J., Horn, A.B. and Yeates, S.G. (2014) Concentration- and Solvent-Dependent Photochemical Instability of 6,13-Bis(triisopropysilylethynyl) Pentacene. Advanced Optical Materials, 2, 636-640.
https://doi.org/10.1002/adom.201400003

[37]   Gunduz, B. and Yakuphanoglu, F. (2012) Effects of UV and White Light Illuminations on Photosensing Properties of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene Thin Film Transistor. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 178, 141-153.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2012.02.032

[38]   Platt, A.D., Day, J., Subramanian, S., Anthony, J.E. and Ostroverkhova, O. (2009) Optical, Fluorescent, and (Photo)conductive Properties of High-Performance Functionalized Pentacene and Anthradithiophene Derivatives. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113, 14006-14014.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jp904021p

[39]   Davis, R.J., Lloyd, M.T., Ferreira, S.R., Bruzek, M.J., Watkins, S.E., Lindell, L., Sehati, P., Fahlman, M., Anthony, J.E. and Hsu, J.W.P. (2011) Determination of Energy Level Alignment at Interfaces of Hybrid and Organic Solar Cells under Ambient Environment. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21, 1721-1729.
https://doi.org/10.1039/C0JM02349C

[40]   Saeed, Y., Zhao, K., Singh, N., Li, R., Anthony, J.E., Amassian, A. and Schwingenschlogl, U. (2013) Influence of Substitution on the Optical Properties of Functionalized Pentacene Monomers and Crystals: Experiment and Theory. Chemical Physics Letters, 585, 95-100.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2013.08.023

[41]   Liu, S.-W., Huang, J.-C., Lee, C.-C., Lee, C.-T. and Wang, J.-K. (2007) Improving Stability of Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors with Post-Annealing. Symposium F—Interfaces in Organic and Mo-lecular Electronics III, 1029.

[42]   Murtaza, G., Ahmad, I., Chen, H. and Wu, J. (2014) Study of 6,13-bis(tri-iso-propylsi-lylethynyl) Pentacene (TIPS-Pentacene Crystal) Based Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs). Synthetic Metals, 194, 146-152.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2014.04.034

[43]   Chen, J., Tee, C.K., Yang, J., Shaw, C., Shtein, M., Anthony, J. and Martin, D.C. (2006) Thermal and Mechanical Cracking in Bis(triisopropylsilylethnyl) Pentacene Thin Films. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 44, 3631-3641.

 
 
Top