ENG  Vol.10 No.10 , October 2018
Effect of Single Pass Laser Surface Treatment on Microstructure Evolution of Inoculated Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2 and Non-Inoculated Zr65Cu15Al10Ni10 Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites
Abstract: Bulk metallic glass matrix composites are advocated to be material of future owing to their superior strength, hardness and elastic strain limit. However, they possess poor toughness which makes them unusable in any structural engineering application. Inoculation has been used as effective mean to overcome this problem. Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2 bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMC) inoculated with ZrC have shown considerable refinement in microstructure owing to heterogeneous nucleation. Efforts have also been made to exploit modern laser-based metal additive manufacturing to fabricate BMGMC parts in one step. However, the effect of laser on inoculated material is unknown. In this study, an effort has been made to apply single pass laser surface treatment on untreated and inoculated BMGMC samples. It is observed that laser treatment not only refine the microstructure but result in change of size, morphology and dispersion of CuZr B2 phase in base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone in Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2. A similar effect is observed for β-Zr and Zr2Cu in non-inoculated Zr65Cu15Al10Ni10. This effect is documented with back scatter electron imaging.
Cite this paper: Ali Rafique, M. (2018) Effect of Single Pass Laser Surface Treatment on Microstructure Evolution of Inoculated Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2 and Non-Inoculated Zr65Cu15Al10Ni10 Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites. Engineering, 10, 730-758. doi: 10.4236/eng.2018.1010052.

[1]   Avner, S.H. (1974) Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

[2]   Porter, D.A. and Easterling, K.E. (1992) Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys. 3rd Edition, Taylor & Francis, Milton Park, UK.

[3]   Taylor, H.F. (1959) Foundry Engineering. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.

[4]   Kurz, W. and Fisher, D.J. (1986) Fundamentals of Solidification. Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, Switzerland.

[5]   Klement, W., Willens, R.H. and Duwez, P.O.L. (1960) Non-Crystalline Structure in Solidified Gold-Silicon Alloys. Nature, 187, 869-870.

[6]   Telford, M. (2004) The Case for Bulk Metallic Glass. Materials Today, 7, 36-43.

[7]   Chen, M. (2011) A Brief Overview of Bulk Metallic Glasses. NPG Asia Materials, 3, 82-90.

[8]   Schroers, J. and Johnson, W.L. (2004) Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass. Physical Review Letters, 93, Article ID: 255506.

[9]   Greer, A.L. (1995) Metallic Glasses. Science, 267, 1947-1953.

[10]   Güntherodt, H.J. (1977) Metallic Glasses. In: Treusch, J., Ed., Festkörperprobleme 17: Plenary Lectures of the Divisions “Semiconductor Physics” “Metal Physics” “Low Temperature Physics” “Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics” “Crystallography” “Magnetism” “Surface Physics” of the German Physical Society Münster, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 25-53.

[11]   Ashby, M.F. and Greer, A.L. (2006) Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials. Scripta Materialia, 54, 321-326.

[12]   Si, J.J., et al. (2015) Cr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses with Ultrahigh Hardness. Applied Physics Letters, 106, Article ID: 251905.

[13]   Ramamurty, U., et al. (2005) Hardness and Plastic Deformation in a Bulk Metallic glass. Acta Materialia, 53, 705-717.

[14]   Greer, A.L., Cheng, Y.Q. and Ma, E. (2013) Shear Bands in Metallic Glasses. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 74, 71-132.

[15]   Yang, Y. and Liu, C.T. (2012) Size Effect on Stability of Shear-Band Propagation in Bulk Metallic Glasses: An Overview. Journal of Materials Science, 47, 55-67.

[16]   Packard, C.E. and Schuh, C.A. (2007) Initiation of Shear Bands near a Stress Concentration in Metallic Glass. Acta Materialia, 55, 5348-5358.

[17]   Zhu, Z., et al. (2010) Ta-Particulate Reinforced Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite with Tensile Plasticity. Scripta Materialia, 62, 278-281.

[18]   Fan, C., et al. (2006) Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Amorphous Alloys Reinforced by Ductile Particles at Cryogenic Temperatures. Physical Review Letters, 96, Article ID: 145506.

[19]   Choi-Yim, H., et al. (2002) Processing, Microstructure and Properties of Ductile metal Particulate Reinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4Ni12.6 Bulk Metallic Glass Composites. Acta Materialia, 50, 2737-2745.

[20]   Liu, J., et al. (2010) In Situ Spherical B2 CuZr Phase Reinforced ZrCuNiAlNb Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite. Journal of Materials Research, 25, 1159-1163.

[21]   Fan, C., Ott, R.T. and Hufnagel, T.C. (2002) Metallic Glass Matrix Composite with Precipitated Ductile Reinforcement. Applied Physics Letters, 81, 1020-1022.

[22]   Jiang, F., et al. (2007) Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Cu46Zr47Al7 Bulk Metallic Glass Composite Containing CuZr Crystallizing Phases. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 467, 139-145.

[23]   Chen, G., et al. (2009) Enhanced Plasticity in a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite with in Situ Formed Intermetallic Phases. Applied Physics Letters, 95, Article ID: 081908.

[24]   Guo, W. and Kato, H. (2015) Development and Microstructure Optimization of Mg-Based Metallic Glass Matrix Composites with in Situ B2-NiTi Dispersoids. Materials & Design, 83, 238-248.

[25]   Jeon, C., et al. (2015) Effects of Effective Dendrite Size on Tensile Deformation Behavior in Ti-Based Dendrite-Containing Amorphous Matrix Composites Modified from Ti-6Al-4V Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46, 235-250.

[26]   Zhang, T., et al. (2014) Dendrite Size Dependence of Tensile Plasticity of in Situ Ti-Based Metallic Glass Matrix Composites. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 583, 593-597.

[27]   Hofmann, D.C., et al. (2016) Castable Bulk Metallic Glass Strain Wave Gears: Towards Decreasing the Cost of High-Performance Robotics. Scientific Reports, 6, 3 Article ID: 7773.

[28]   Rafique, M.M.A. (2018) Production and Characterization of Zr Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites (BMGMC) in the Form of Wedge Shape Ingots. Engineering, 10, 215-245.

[29]   Kim, D.H., et al. (2013) Phase Separation in Metallic Glasses. Progress in Materials. Science, 58, 1103-1172.

[30]   Basu, J., et al. (2003) Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Partially Crystallized La-Based Bulk Metallic Glass. Philosophical Magazine, 83, 1747-1760.

[31]   Taub, A.I. and Spaepen, F. (1980) The Kinetics of Structural Relaxation of a Metallic glass. Acta Metallurgica, 28, 1781-1788.

[32]   Zhang, Y., Wang, W.H. and Greer, A.L. (2006) Making Metallic Glasses Plastic by Control of Residual Stress. Nature Materials, 5, 857-860.

[33]   Fan, C., et al. (2006) Properties of As-Cast and Structurally Relaxed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 352, 174-179.

[34]   Krämer, L., Champion, Y. and Pippan, R. (2017) From Powders to Bulk Metallic Glass Composites. Scientific Reports, 7, 6651.

[35]   Brothers, A.H. and Dunand, D.C. (2005) Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass Foams. Advanced Materials, 17, 484-486.

[36]   Liu, Z., et al. (2012) Pronounced Ductility in CuZrAl Ternary Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with Optimized Microstructure through Melt Adjustment. AIP Advances, 2, Article ID: 032176.

[37]   Cheng, J.-L., et al. (2013) Innovative Approach to the Design of Low-Cost Zr-Based BMG Composites with Good Glass Formation. Scientific Reports, 3, 2097.

[38]   Harooni, A., et al. (2016) Processing Window Development for Laser Cladding of Zirconium on Zirconium Alloy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 230, 263-271.

[39]   Hays, C.C., Kim, C.P. and Johnson, W.L. (2000) Microstructure Controlled Shear Band Pattern Formation and Enhanced Plasticity of Bulk Metallic Glasses Containing in Situ Formed Ductile Phase Dendrite Dispersions. Physical Review Letters, 84, 2901-2904.

[40]   Scudino, S., et al. (2011) Ductile Bulk Metallic Glasses Produced through Designed Heterogeneities. Scripta Materialia, 65, 815-818.

[41]   Gargarella, P., et al. (2014) Phase Formation and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Cu-Ni-Zr Bulk Metallic Glass Composites. Acta Materialia, 65, 259-269.

[42]   Das, J., et al. (2005) “Work-Hardenable” Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass. Physical Review Letters, 94, Article ID: 205501.

[43]   Das, J., et al. (2007) Plasticity in Bulk Metallic Glasses Investigated via the Strain Distribution. Physical Review B, 76, Article ID: 092203.

[44]   Kim, K.B., et al. (2005) Heterogeneous Distribution of Shear Strains in Deformed Ti66.1Cu8Ni4.8Sn7.2Nb13.9 Nanostructure-Dendrite Composite. Physica Status Solidi (a), 202, 2405-2412.

[45]   Fan, C., Li, C. and Inoue, A. (2000) Nanocrystal Composites in Zr-Nb-Cu-Al Metallic Glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 270, 28-33.

[46]   Inoue, A., et al. (2015) Production Methods and Properties of Engineering Glassy Alloys and Composites. Intermetallics, 58, 20-30.

[47]   Hofmann, D.C., et al. (2008) Designing Metallic Glass Matrix Composites with High Toughness and Tensile Ductility. Nature, 451, 1085-1089.

[48]   Hofmann, D.C., et al. (2008) Development of Tough, Low-Density Titanium-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites with Tensile Ductility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 20136-20140.

[49]   Zhang, L., et al. (2017) Distribution of Be in a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite Containing B-Ti. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 33, 708-711.

[50]   Booth, J., Lewandowski, J. and Carter, J. (2014) EBSD Analysis for Microstructure Characterization of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20, 852-853.

[51]   Hofmann, D.C. and Johnson, W.L. (2010) Improving Ductility in Nanostructured Materials and Metallic Glasses: “Three Laws”. In: Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, Switzerland.

[52]   Jiang, J.-Z., et al. (2015) Low-Density High-Strength Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Composites: A Review. Advanced Engineering Materials, 17, 761-780.

[53]   Qiao, J., Jia, H. and Liaw, P.K. (2016) Metallic Glass Matrix Composites. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 100, 1-69.

[54]   Sun, H. and Flores, K.M. (2010) Microstructural Analysis of a Laser-Processed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 41, 1752-1757.

[55]   Rafique, M.M.A. (2018) Modelling and Simulation of Solidification Phenomena during Additive Manufacturing of Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites (BMGMC): A Brief Review and Introduction of Technique. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 8, 50.

[56]   Park, E.S. and Kim, D.H. (2005) Design of Bulk Metallic Glasses with High Glass Forming Ability and Enhancement of Plasticity in Metallic Glass Matrix Composites: A Review. Metals and Materials International, 11, 19-27.

[57]   Gibson, I., Rosen, W.D. and Stucker, B. (2010) Development of Additive Manufacturing Technology, in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing. Springer, Boston, MA, 36-58.

[58]   Frazier, W.E. (2014) Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 23, 1917-1928.

[59]   Sames, W.J., et al. (2016) The Metallurgy and Processing Science of Metal Additive manufacturing. International Materials Reviews, 61, 315-360.

[60]   Wong, K.V. and Hernandez, A. (2012) A Review of Additive Manufacturing. ISRN Mechanical Engineering, 2012, Article ID: 208760.

[61]   DebRoy, T., et al. (2018) Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components—Process, Structure and Properties. Progress in Materials Science, 92, 112-224.

[62]   Yap, C.Y., et al. (2015) Review of Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications. Applied Physics Reviews, 2, Article ID: 041101.

[63]   Zheng, B., et al. (2008) Thermal Behavior and Microstructural Evolution during Laser Deposition with Laser-Engineered Net Shaping: Part I. Numerical Calculations. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 39, 2228-2236.

[64]   Romano, J., et al. (2015) Temperature Distribution and Melt Geometry in Laser and Electron-Beam Melting Processes—A Comparison among Common Materials. Additive Manufacturing, 8, 1-11.

[65]   Gong, X. and Chou, K. (2015) Phase-Field Modeling of Microstructure Evolution in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing. JOM, 67, 1176-1182.

[66]   Zhang, Y., et al. (2015) Microstructural Analysis of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 Bulk Metallic Glasses by Laser Surface Remelting and Laser Solid Forming. Intermetallics, 66, 22-30.

[67]   Olakanmi, E.O., Cochrane, R.F. and Dalgarno, K.W. (2015) A Review on Selective laser Sintering/Melting (SLS/SLM) of Aluminium Alloy Powders: Processing, Microstructure, and Properties. Progress in Materials Science, 74, 401-477.

[68]   Li, X.P., et al. (2016) Selective Laser Melting of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties. Materials & Design, 112, 217-226.

[69]   Yang, G., et al. (2012) Laser solid forming Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Intermetallics, 22, 110-115.

[70]   Welk, B.A., et al. (2014) Phase Selection in a Laser Surface Melted Zr-Cu-Ni-Al-Nb Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 45, 547-554.

[71]   Cardinal, S., et al. (2018) Manufacturing of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses Matrix Composites by Spark Plasma Sintering. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 711, 405-414.

[72]   Buchbinder, D., et al. (2011) High Power Selective Laser Melting (HP SLM) of Aluminum Parts. Physics Procedia, 12, 271-278.

[73]   Zheng, B., et al. (2009) Processing and Behavior of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Components via Laser-Engineered Net Shaping. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 40, 1235-1245.

[74]   Dezfoli, A.R.A., et al. (2017) Determination and Controlling of Grain Structure of Metals after Laser Incidence: Theoretical Approach. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID: 41527.

[75]   Zinoviev, A., et al. (2016) Evolution of Grain Structure during Laser Additive Manufacturing. Simulation by a Cellular Automata Method. Materials & Design, 106, 321-329.

[76]   Khairallah, S.A., et al. (2016) Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Physics of Complex Melt Flow and Formation Mechanisms of Pores, Spatter, and Denudation Zones. Acta Materialia, 108, 36-45.

[77]   Zhang, J., et al. (2013) Probabilistic Simulation of Solidification Microstructure Evolution during Laser-Based Metal Deposition. Proceedings of 2013 Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium—An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, TX, 2013.

[78]   Lindgren, L.-E., et al. (2016) Simulation of Additive Manufacturing Using Coupled Constitutive and Microstructure Models. Additive Manufacturing, 12, 144-158.

[79]   Musaddique Ali Rafique, M. (2018) Simulation of Solidification Parameters during Zr Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite’s (BMGMCs). Additive Manufacturing, 10, 85-108.

[80]   Rafique, M.M.A., Qiu, D. and Easton, M. (2017) Modeling and Simulation of Microstructural Evolution in Zr Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites during Solidification. MRS Advances, 2, 3591-3606.

[81]   Li, Y. and Gu, D. (2014) Thermal Behavior during Selective Laser Melting of Commercially Pure Titanium Powder: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study. Additive Manufacturing, 1-4, 99-109.

[82]   Baufeld, B., Brandl, E. and van der Biest, O. (2011) Wire Based Additive Layer Manufacturing: Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Components Fabricated by Laser-Beam Deposition and Shaped Metal Deposition. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211, 1146-1158.

[83]   Li, B., et al. (2006) Laser Welding of Zr45Cu48Al7 Bulk Glassy Alloy. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 413, 118-121.

[84]   Pauly, S., et al. (2013) Processing Metallic Glasses by Selective Laser Melting. Materials Today, 16, 37-41.

[85]   Kim, J.H., et al. (2007) Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Cu54Ni6Zr22Ti18 Bulk Metallic Glass. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 449-451, 872-875.

[86]   Matthews, D.T.A., Ocelík, V. and de Hosson, J.T.M. (2007) Tribological and Mechanical Properties of High Power Laser Surface-Treated Metallic Glasses. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 471, 155-164.

[87]   Chen, B., et al. (2010) Improvement in Mechanical Properties of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass by Laser Surface Treatment. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 504, S45-S47.

[88]   Wu, G., et al. (2012) Induced Multiple Heterogeneities and Related Plastic Improvement by Laser Surface Treatment in CuZr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass. Intermetallics, 24, 50-55.

[89]   Williams, E. and Lavery, N. (2017) Laser Processing of Bulk Metallic Glass: A Review. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 247, 73-91.

[90]   Ouyang, D., Li, N. and Liu, L. (2018) Structural Heterogeneity in 3D Printed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass by Selective Laser Melting. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 740, 603-609.

[91]   Zhang, C., et al. (2018) 3D Printing of Fe-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites with Large Dimension and Enhanced Toughness by Thermal Spraying. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6, 6800-6805.

[92]   Ouyang, D., et al. (2017) 3D Printing of Crack-Free High Strength Zr-Based Bulk metallic Glass Composite by Selective Laser Melting. Intermetallics, 90, 128-134.

[93]   Shen, Y., et al. (2017) 3D Printing of Large, Complex Metallic Glass Structures. Materials & Design, 117, 213-222.

[94]   Matthews, D.T.A., et al. (2009) Laser Engineered Surfaces from Glass Forming Alloy Powder Precursors: Microstructure and Wear. Surface and Coatings Technology, 203, 1833-1843.

[95]   Wang, H.-S., et al. (2011) The Effects of Initial Welding Temperature and Welding Parameters on the Crystallization Behaviors of Laser Spot Welded Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 129, 547-552.

[96]   Wang, H.-S., Wu, J.-Y. and Liu, Y.-T. (2016) Effect of the Volume Fraction of the Ex-Situ Reinforced Ta Additions on the Microstructure and Properties of Laser-Welded Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites. Intermetallics, 68, 87-94.

[97]   Wang, H.S., et al. (2010) Combination of a Nd:YAG Laser and a Liquid Cooling Device to (Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8)Si0.5 Bulk Metallic Glass Welding. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528, 338-341.

[98]   Zhu, Y., et al. (2016) Effect of Nanosecond Pulse Laser Ablation on the Surface Morphology of Zr-Based Metallic Glass. Optics & Laser Technology, 83, 21-27.

[99]   Williams, E. and Brousseau, E.B. (2016) Nanosecond Laser Processing of Zr41.2Ti13.8 Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 with Single Pulses. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 232, 34-42.

[100]   Fu, J., et al. (2016) Effect of Laser Shock Peening on the Compressive Deformation and Plastic Behavior of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 86, 53-61.

[101]   Audebert, F., et al. (2003) Production of Glassy Metallic Layers by Laser Surface treatment. Scripta Materialia, 48, 281-286.

[102]   Ma, F., et al. (2010) Femtosecond Laser-Induced Concentric Ring Microstructures on Zr-Based Metallic Glass. Applied Surface Science, 256, 3653-3660.

[103]   Heine, R.W., Loper, C.R. and Rosenthal, P.C. (1955) Principles of Metal Casting, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

[104]   Chalmers, B. (1970) Principles of Solidification, In: Low, W. and Schieber, M., Eds., Applied Solid State Physics, Springer, Boston, MA, 161-170.

[105]   Xu, W., et al. (2011) In Situ Formation of Crystalline Flakes in Mg-Based Metallic Glass Composites by Controlled Inoculation. Acta Materialia, 59, 7776-7786.

[106]   Stefanescu, D. (2015) Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, Springer, Berlin.

[107]   Flemings, M.C. (1974) Solidification Processing. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

[108]   Christian, J.W. (2002) The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

[109]   Rafique, M.M.A. (2018) Effect of Inoculation on Phase Formation and Indentation Hardness Behaviour of Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2 and Zr65Cu15Al10Ni10 Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites. Engineering, 10, 530-559.

[110]   Yue, T.M., Su, Y.P. and Yang, H.O. (2007) Laser Cladding of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 Amorphous Alloy on Magnesium. Materials Letters, 61, 209-212.

[111]   Wang, Y., et al. (2004) Microstructure and Properties of Laser Clad Zr-Based Alloy Coatings on Ti Substrates. Surface and Coatings Technology, 176, 284-289.

[112]   Jiang, S.-S., et al. (2018) A CuZr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite with Excellent Mechanical Properties by Optimizing Microstructure. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 483, 94-98.

[113]   Cheng, J.L. and Chen, G. (2013) Glass formation of Zr-Cu-Ni-Al Bulk Metallic Glasses Correlated with L→Zr2Cu+ZrCu Pseudo Binary Eutectic Reaction. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 577, 451-455.

[114]   Li, P., et al. (2014) Glass Forming Ability, Thermodynamics and Mechanical Properties of Novel Ti-Cu-Ni-Zr-Hf Bulk Metallic Glasses. Materials & Design, 53, 145-151.

[115]   Ayyagari, A., et al. (2018) Electrochemical and Friction Characteristics of Metallic Glass Composites at the Microstructural Length-Scales. Scientific Reports, 8, 906.

[116]   Chen, H.S. (1980) Glassy Metals. Reports on Progress in Physics, 43, 353.