OJAS  Vol.8 No.4 , October 2018
Analytical Evaluation of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Imbedded in Hydrophobic Starch in the Rumen
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to assess the value of hydrophobic starch as a method to encapsulate a supplement consisting of refined fish oil intended for use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. In Study 1, the product was incubated in vitro for 24 hours. The entire media was analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. In Study 2, the test material was incubated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours in order to determine rate of loss of dry matter, as well as the fatty acid profile of the dry matter remaining at 24 hours. Results from Study 1 indicated that 61.1 % of the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and 75.3% docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) were still intact after the 24 hour incubation period. In Study 2, 39.1% of the test material was solubilized in the 24 hour period. However, the losses in C20:5 and C22:6 fatty acids were less (25.32% and 27.90% respectively) indicating that the majority of the test product was protected against biohydrogenation. It was concluded that hydrophobic starch can be used to ruminally protected fish oil and to deliver C20:5 and C22:6 fatty acids past the rumen.
Cite this paper: Ballard, M. (2018) Analytical Evaluation of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Imbedded in Hydrophobic Starch in the Rumen. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 8, 432-438. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2018.84032.

[1]   Mattos, R., Staples, C.R. and Thatcher, W.W. (2000) Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Reproduction in Ruminants. Reviews of Reproduction, 5, 38-45.

[2]   Bozza, P.T., Bakker-Abreu, I., Navarro-Xavier, R.A. and Bandeira-Melo, C. (2011) Lipid Body Function in Eicosanoid Synthesis: An Update. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 85, 205-213.

[3]   Schmitz, G. and Ecker, J. (2008) The Opposing Effects of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids. Progress in Lipid Research, 47, 147-155.

[4]   Nakamura, M.T. and Nara, T.Y. (2003) Essential Fatty Acid Synthesis and Its Regulation in Mammals. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 68, 145-150.

[5]   Simopoulos, A.P. (2002) The Importance of The Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 56, 365-379.

[6]   Kairenius, P., Toivonen, V. and Shingfield, K.J. (2011) Identification and Ruminal Outflow of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Intermediates in Cows Fed Diets Containing Fish Oil. Lipids, 46, 587-606.

[7]   Shingfield, K.J., Lee, M.R.F., Humphries, D.J., Scollan, N.D., Toivonen, V., Reynolds, C.K. and Beever, D.E. (2010) Effect of Incremental Amounts of Fish Oil in the Diet on Ruminal Lipid Metabolism in Growing Steers. British Journal of Nutrition, 104, 56-66.

[8]   Beam, T.M., Jenkins, T.C., Moate, P.J., Kohn, R.A. and Palmquist, D.L. (2000) Effects of Amount and Source of Fat on the Rates of Lipolysis and Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids in Ruminal Contents. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2564-2573.

[9]   Fuentes, M.C., Calsamiglia, S., Fievez, V., Blanch, M. and Mercadal, D.(2011) Effect of pH on Ruminal Fermentation and Biohydrogenation of Diets Rich in Omega-3 or Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Continuous Culture of Ruminal Fluid. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 169, 35-45.

[10]   Fievez, V., Vlaeminck, B., Jenkins, T., Enjalbert, F. and Doreau, M. (2007) Assessing Rumen Biohydrogenation and Its Manipulation in Vivo, in Vitro and in Situ. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 740-756.

[11]   Lanier, J.S. and Corl, B.A. (2015) Challenges in Enriching Milk Fat with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 6, 26.

[12]   Castaneda-Gutiérrez, E., De Veth, M.J., Lock, A.L., Dwyer, D.A., Murphy, K.D. and Bauman, D.E. (2007) Effect of Supplementation with Calcium Salts of Fish Oil on n-3 Fatty Acids in Milk Fat. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 4149-4156.

[13]   Fuchs, M., Turchiuli, C., Bohin, M., Cuvelier, M.E., Ordonnaud, C., Peyrat-Maillard, M.N. and Dumoulin, E. (2006) Encapsulation of Oil in Powder Using Spray Drying and Fluidised Bed Agglomeration. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 27-35.

[14]   McDougall, E.I. (1948) Studies on Ruminant Saliva. 1. The Composition and Output of Sheep’s Saliva. Biochemical Journal, 43, 99-109.

[15]   Kramer, J.K., Fellner, V., Dugan, M.E., Sauer, F.D., Mossoba, M.M. and Yurawecz, M.P. (1997) Evaluating Acid and Base Catalysts in the Methylation of Milk and Rumen Fatty Acids with Special Emphasis on Conjugated Dienes and Total trans Fatty Acids. Lipids, 32, 1219-1228.

[16]   Orskov, E.R. and McDonald, I. (1979). The Estimation of Protein Degradability in the Rumen from Incubation Measurements Weighted according to Rate of Passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92, 499-503.

[17]   Shingfield, K.J., Ahvenjarvi, S., Toivonen, V., Arola, A., Nurmela, K.V.V., Huhtanen, P. and Griinari, J.M. (2003) Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids and Milk Fatty Acid Content in Cows. Animal Science, 77,165-179.

[18]   Klein C. (2011) Biohydrogenation of Docosahexaenoic Acid. Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson University, Clemson.

[19]   Dohme, F., Fievez, V., Raes, K. and Demeyer, D.I. (2003) Increasing Levels of Two Different Fish Oils Lower Ruminal Biohydrogenation of Eicosapentaenoic and Eocosahexaenoic Acid in Vitro. Animal Research, 52, 309-320.