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 IJMPCERO  Vol.7 No.4 , November 2018
Monte Carlo Study of 3D Stray Radiation during Interventional Procedures
Abstract: In interventional medical procedures, other than the highly important issue of optimizing image quality and patient exposure using the primary beam, there remains a continuing need for the study of staff exposure from the scattered radiation. Herein, investigation is made of the 3D stray-radiation distribution, the simulation being made of a realistic interventional scenario through use of the Monte Carlo code Geant4 (version 10.3). The simulation is conducted based on the high definition reference Korean-man (HDRK-man) computational phantom and a GE Infinia 3/8 C-arm machine, focusing on the effect of variation of kVp and field of view (FoV) on the scattered particles’ spatial distribution. With direct measurement of the absorbed dose remaining challenging, not least in respect of the organs at risk, we computed the scatter fractions, defined as the ratio of the air kerma free-in-air to the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), which are both easily quantifiable. Scatter fraction distributions were simulated for X-ray tube outputs (and half-value layers, HVL) of 60 kVp (2.3 mm Al), 80 kVp (3.2 mm Al) and 120 kVp (4.3 mm Al) and FoV of 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm. The distributions are obtained for different height levels, corresponding to the lens of the eye, and the lung and prostate, all radiosensitive organs. Investigations are made for eight likely locations around the patient. At fixed FoV results reveal an inverse relationship between ESAK and kVp, also that change in kVp from 60 to 80 has a greater effect than from 80 to 120. For change in FoV at fixed kVp, the scatter fraction remains constant. The particular staff locations are found to be optimal in seeking mitigation of dose. Moreover, the combined usage of numerical human model and Monte Carlo simulation can be considered as an added value to the radiation safety research field, especially to the interventional radiology staff and to the patient.
Cite this paper: Alzimami, K. (2018) Monte Carlo Study of 3D Stray Radiation during Interventional Procedures. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, 7, 453-463. doi: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2018.74038.
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