Back
 AJIBM  Vol.8 No.9 , September 2018
Business Model Innovation Approach for Commercializing Smart Grid Systems
Abstract: The depletion of fossil fuels, increased environmental concerns, rising cost and the demand for clean energy are causing the transformation of energy generation and distribution system, to shift towards the consumption side. Electricity generation sources and distribution systems are drifting from non-renewable to renewable, centralized to decentralized and localized, and traditional grid systems to smart grid systems. New technologies nurture the concept of transformation of energy firms, all the way from energy production to electricity consumption. Smart grid systems are one of the disruptive and emerging technologies that might influence the entire electricity system. This disruptive technology demands a new business model which can be used to commercialize the new power distribution system and thus create value for all stakeholders, from production to consumption. The Smart grid has the potential to revolutionize the electricity industry if it is commercialized successfully. It allows information and communication technology firms to contribute with their modern technology to empower their consumers to regulate the usage of electricity. To investigate the reasons for shifting from the old to the new energy system, the impact of this disruptive technology on energy providing firms, the demand for the new business model and the approach of the new business model in terms of creating and capturing values published peer-reviewed articles, and international energy agency reports have been reviewed. This paper encourages energy providing firms to redesign business models for commercializing new energy distribution system and to offer new services to the energy consumers for their future survival in the new trends of the energy market. These services include integrating with renewable energy sources, electric vehicle services, and demand response services to create more value for the consumers and in return gains more profit for each actor. The services provided through integration of renewable energy with smart grid and the electric vehicle will empower consumers involvement in the electricity system which will give them more control over electricity. CO2 production will be reduced, helping to create a clean environment and will enable operators to improve grid security and network stability. Finally, demand response services will provide multiple electricity package options to the consumers in which they can select an appropriate package according to their need which will give them more control over their electricity bill. System operators can optimize their grid operations to provide better power quality, and service providers can increase their income by offering additional services.
Cite this paper: Bhatti, H. and Danilovic, M. (2018) Business Model Innovation Approach for Commercializing Smart Grid Systems. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 8, 2007-2051. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.89134.
References

[1]   Bhatti, H.J. and Danilovic, M. (2018) Making the World More Sustainable: Enabling Localized Energy Generation and Distribution on Decentralized Smart Grid Systems. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 6, 350-382.
https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2018.62022

[2]   Grace, W. (2014) Exploring the Death Spiral—A System Dynamics Model of the South West Interconnected System. AUDRC Laboratory.

[3]   Allen, M.R., et al. (2009) Warming Caused by Cumulative Carbon Emissions towards the Trillionth Tonne. Nature, 458, 1163-1166.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08019

[4]   McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002) Remaking the Way We Make Things: Cradle to Cradle. ISBN, 1224942886, North Point Press, New York, 104.

[5]   Christensen, C.M. (1997) The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book That Will Change the Way You Do Business (Collins Business Essentials).

[6]   Bower, J.L. and Christensen, C.M. (1996) Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1, 75-76.

[7]   Erlinghagen, S. and Markard, J. (2012) Smart Grids and the Transformation of the Electricity Sector: ICT Firms as Potential Catalysts for Sectoral Change. Energy Policy, 51, 895-906.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.09.045

[8]   Battaglini, A., et al. (2009) Development of SuperSmart Grids for a More Efficient Utilisation of Electricity from Renewable Sources. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 911-918.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.006

[9]   Inage, S.-I. (2010) Modelling Load Shifting Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment.

[10]   Clastres, C. (2011) Smart Grids: Another Step towards Competition, Energy Security and Climate Change Objectives. Energy Policy, 39, 5399-5408.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.05.024

[11]   Kind (2013) Disruptive Challenges: Financial Implications and Strategic Responses to a Changing Retail Electric Business. Edison Electric Institute.

[12]   Frantzis, L., et al. (2008) Photovoltaics Business Models. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO.
https://doi.org/10.2172/924651

[13]   Osterwalder, A. (2004) The Business Model Ontology: A Proposition in a Design Science Approach.

[14]   Teece, D.J. (2010) Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, 43, 172-194.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lr2009.07.003

[15]   DaSilva, C.M. and Trkman, P. (2014) Business Model: What It Is and What It Is Not. Long Range Planning, 47, 379-389.

[16]   Baden-Fuller, C. and Haefliger, S. (2013) Business Models and Technological Innovation. Long Range Planning, 46, 419-426.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lr2013.08.023

[17]   Sosna, M., Trevinyo-Rodríguez, R.N. and Velamuri, S.R. (2010) Business Model Innovation through Trial-and-Error Learning: The Naturhouse Case. Long Range Planning, 43, 383-407.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lr2010.02.003

[18]   Christensen, C.M. and Bower, J.L. (1996) Customer Power, Strategic Investment, and the Failure of Leading Firms. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 197-218.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199603)17:3<197::AID-SMJ804>3.0.CO;2-U

[19]   Bocken, N., et al. (2014) A Literature and Practice Review to Develop Sustainable Business Model Archetypes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 42-56.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.039

[20]   Mah, D.N.-Y., et al. (2013) The Role of the State in Sustainable Energy Transitions: A Case Study of Large Smart Grid Demonstration Projects in Japan. Energy Policy, 63, 726-737.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.106

[21]   Shomali, A. and Pinkse, J. (2016) The Consequences of Smart Grids for the Business Model of Electricity Firms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 3830-3841.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.078

[22]   Amit, R. and Zott, C. (2001) Value Creation in E-Business. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 493-520.
https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.187

[23]   IEA (2017) World Energy Outlook 2017. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, OECD.

[24]   Timmons, D., Harris, J.M. and Roach, B. (2014) The Economics of Renewable Energy. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, 52.

[25]   Agency, I.E. (2013) Key World Energy Statistics. International Energy Agency.

[26]   IEA (2007) Renewables in Global Energy Supply. International Energy Agency and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

[27]   Feldman, D., Barbose, G., Margolis, R., Wiser, R., Darghouth, N. and Goodrich, A. (2012) Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections (No. LBNL-6019E). Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA.

[28]   Jonkman, J.M. and Buhl Jr., M. (2005) FAST User’s Guide, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. No. NREL/EL-500-38230, Golden, CO.

[29]   Momoh, J.A., Meliopoulos, S. and Saint, R. (2012) Centralized and Distributed Generated Power Systems—A Comparison Approach. Future Grid Initiative White Paper, 1-10.

[30]   Basso, T.S. and DeBlasio, R. (2004) IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 19, 1159-1162.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2004.834000

[31]   Hadjsaid, N., Canard, J.-F. and Dumas, F. (1999) Dispersed Generation Impact on Distribution Networks. IEEE Computer Applications in Power, 12, 22-28.
https://doi.org/10.1109/67.755642

[32]   Zame, K.K., et al. (2017) Smart Grid and Energy Storage: Policy Recommendations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 1646-1654.

[33]   Hossain, M.R., Oo, A.M. and Ali, A.S. (2013) Smart Grid, in Smart Grids. Springer, Berlin, 23-44.

[34]   Feisst, C., Schlesinger, D. and Frye, W. (2008) Smart Grid: The Role of Electricity Infrastructure in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Cisco Internet Business Solution Group (IBSG), San Jose, CA.

[35]   Banerjee, S., et al. (2011) Report on the First Quadrennial Technology Review. US Department of Energy.

[36]   Papavasiliou, A. and Oren, S.S. (2014) Large-Scale Integration of Deferrable Demand and Renewable Energy Sources. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 29, 489-499.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2238644

[37]   Atteya, I.I., Ashour, H.A., Fahmi, N. and Strickland, D. (2016) Distribution Network Reconfiguration in Smart Grid System Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), Birmingham, 20-23 November 2016, 305-313.

[38]   Kuhn, T.S. (2012) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226458144.001.0001

[39]   Pentland, A. (2015) Social Physics: How Social Networks Can Make Us Smarter. NY Penguin Books, New York.

[40]   Qiu, L. (2017) False ISIS Connections, Nonexistent Victims and Other Misinformation in the Wake of Las Vegas Shooting. The New York Times.
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/02/us/politics/viral-claims-and-rumors-in-the-las-
vegas-shooting.html


[41]   Beinhocker, E.D. (2006) The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics. Harvard Business Press, Harvard.

[42]   Gonzalez, A. (2014) Single-Serve Coffee Revolution Brews Industry Change.
http://seattletimes.com/html/businesstechnology/2022910303_singleservexml.html

[43]   Hamblin, J. (2015) A Brewing Problem. The Atlantic, 2.

[44]   Christensen, C.M., M.E. Raynor, and McDonald, R. (2015) What Is Disruptive Innovation. Harvard Business Review, 93, 44-53.

[45]   Enerquire (2017) Disruptive Innovation in the Energy Sector—Definition & Application to Renewables.
https://www.enerquire.com/blog/disruptive-innovations-in-the-energy-sector-definition-application

[46]   Brunekreeft, G., Buchmann, M. and Meyer, R. (2016) The Rise of Third Parties and the Fall of Incumbents Driven by Large-Scale Integration of Renewable Energies: The Case of Germany. Energy Journal, 37.

[47]   Cuthbertson, R., Furseth, P.I. and Ezell, S.J. (2015) Kodak and Xerox: How High Risk Aversion Kills Companies, in Innovating in a Service-Driven Economy. Springer, Berlin, 166-179.

[48]   Haftor, D.M. (2015) Some Heuristics for Digital Business Model Configuration. In: Persson, A. and Stirna, J., Eds., Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops. CAiSE 2015. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Vol. 215, Springer, Cham, 123-130.

[49]   Baron, D.P. (1997) Integrated Strategy and International Trade Disputes: The Kodak-Fujifilm Case. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 6, 291-346.
https://doi.org/10.1162/105864097567110

[50]   Liu, J.-H. and Meng, Z. (2017) Innovation Model Analysis of New Energy Vehicles: Taking Toyota, Tesla and BYD as an Example. Procedia Engineering, 174, 965-972.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.248

[51]   Wilson, C. (2017) Disruptive Low-Carbon Innovations. Energy Research & Social Science, 37, 216-223.

[52]   Fei, L. and Xi, L. (2004) Defining Competitive Positioning Strategy: A Comprehensive Model. Nankai Business Review, 5, 7.

[53]   Lambert, C. (2014) Disruptive Genius. Harvard Magazine, 116, 38-43.

[54]   Mathew, R.V. (2015) Tesla’s Not as Disruptive as You Might Think. Harvard Business Review, 93, 16.

[55]   Rogers, E. (2003) Difussion of Innovations. Free Press, New York.

[56]   Raouf, F. (2013) The Innovation Problem: Nokia’s Fall From Grace.
http://www.businessinsider.com/the-innovation-problem-nokias-fall-from-grace-2013-1

[57]   Wilkinson, D. (2016) Why Nokia Died a Sudden Death and Why It Matters to Your Organisation.
https://www.oxford-review.com/survive-disruptive-innovation/

[58]   Richter, M. (2013) German Utilities and Distributed PV: How to Overcome Barriers to Business Model Innovation. Renewable Energy, 55, 456-466.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.12.052

[59]   Cardenas, J.A., et al. (2014) A Literature Survey on Smart Grid Distribution: An Analytical Approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 202-216.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.019

[60]   Zhou, K., Yang, S. and Shao, Z. (2016) Energy Internet: The Business Perspective. Applied Energy, 178, 212-222.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.052

[61]   Yigit, M., Gungor, V.C. and Baktir, S. (2014) Cloud Computing for Smart Grid Applications. Computer Networks, 70, 312-329.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2014.06.007

[62]   Zhou, K. and Yang, S. (2016) Understanding Household Energy Consumption Behavior: The Contribution of Energy Big Data Analytics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, 810-819.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.001

[63]   Niesten, E. and Alkemade, F. (2016) How Is Value Created and Captured in Smart Grids? A Review of The literature and an Analysis of Pilot Projects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 629-638.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.08.069

[64]   Welsch, M., et al. (2013) Smart and Just Grids for Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring Options. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 336-352.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.004

[65]   Colak, I., et al. (2014) Smart Grid Opportunities and Applications in Turkey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 344-352.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.02.009

[66]   Siano, P. (2014) Demand Response and Smart Grids—A Survey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 461-478.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.10.022

[67]   Shen, B., et al. (2014) The Role of Regulatory Reforms, Market Changes, and Technology Development to Make Demand Response a Viable Resource in Meeting Energy Challenges. Applied Energy, 130, 814-823.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.069

[68]   Tayal, D. (2016) Disruptive Forces on the Electricity Industry: A Changing Landscape for Utilities. The Electricity Journal, 29, 13-17.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2016.08.004

[69]   Nahan, M. (2015) Opening Address: Energy WA Conference. Vol. 26, Perth, WA.

[70]   Faucheux, S. and Nicolaï, I. (2011) IT for Green and Green IT: A Proposed Typology of Eco-Innovation. Ecological Economics, 70, 2020-2027.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.05.019

[71]   Johnson, M.W. and Suskewicz, J. (2009) How to Jump-Start the Clean Economy. Vol. 87, Harvard Business School Publishing, Brighton.

[72]   Magretta, J. (2002) Why Business Models Matter. Harvard Business Review, 80, 86-92.

[73]   Zott, C., Amit, R. and Massa, L. (2011) The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research. Journal of Management, 37, 1019-1042.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311406265

[74]   Markovic, D.S., et al. (2013) Smart Power Grid and Cloud Computing. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 24, 566-577.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.068

[75]   Chesbrough, H. and Rosenbloom, R.S. (2002) The Role of the Business Model in Capturing Value from Innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s Technology Spin-Off Companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11, 529-555.
https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/11.3.529

[76]   Baden-Fuller, C. and Morgan, M.S. (2010) Business Models as MODELS. Long Range Planning, 43, 156-171.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2010.02.005

[77]   Johnson, M.W. (2010) Seizing the White Space: Business Model Innovation for Growth and Renewal. Harvard Business Press, Brighton.

[78]   Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y. and Tucci, C.L. (2005) Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16, Article No. 1.

[79]   Mardookhy, M., et al. (2014) A Study of Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings in Knoxville, Tennessee. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 241-249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.025

[80]   Geelen, D., Reinders, A. and Keyson, D. (2013) Empowering the End-User in Smart Grids: Recommendations for the Design of Products and Services. Energy Policy, 61, 151-161.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.107

[81]   Marino, A., et al. (2011) A Snapshot of the European Energy Service Market in 2010 and Policy Recommendations to Foster a Further Market Development. Energy Policy, 39, 6190-6198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.019

[82]   Mogel, W.A. (2010) Smart Power: Climate Change, the Smart Grid and the Future of Electric Utilities. Energy Law Journal, 31, 183.

[83]   Carillo-Aparicio, S., Heredia-Larrubia, J.R. and Perez-Hidalgo, F. (2013) SmartCity Málaga, a Real-Living Lab and Its Adaptation to Electric Vehicles in Cities. Energy Policy, 62, 774-779.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.125

[84]   Schiavo, L.L., et al. (2013) Changing the Regulation for Regulating the Change: Innovation-Driven Regulatory Developments for Smart Grids, Smart Metering and E-Mobility in Italy. Energy Policy, 57, 506-517.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.02.022

[85]   Sierzchula, W., et al. (2014) The Influence of Financial Incentives and Other Socio-Economic Factors on Electric Vehicle Adoption. Energy Policy, 68, 183-194.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.043

[86]   Zio, E. and Aven, T. (2011) Uncertainties in Smart Grids Behavior and Modeling: What Are the Risks and Vulnerabilities? How to Analyze Them? Energy Policy, 39, 6308-6320.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.030

[87]   Jamasb, T. and Pollitt, M. (2005) Electricity Market Reform in the European Union: Review of Progress toward Liberalization & Integration. The Energy Journal, 26, 11-41.
https://doi.org/10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol26-NoSI-2

[88]   Faruqui, A., Harris, D. and Hledik, R. (2010) Unlocking the €53 Billion Savings from Smart Meters in the EU: How Increasing the Adoption of Dynamic Tariffs Could Make or Break the EU’s Smart Grid Investment. Energy Policy, 38, 6222-6231.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.06.010

[89]   Boait, P.J., et al. (2013) Managing Complexity in the Smart Grid through a New Approach to Demand Response. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 15, 23.

[90]   Gangale, F., Mengolini, A. and Onyeji, I. (2013) Consumer Engagement: An Insight from Smart Grid Projects in Europe. Energy Policy, 60, 621-628.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.031

[91]   Gans, W., Alberini, A. and Longo, A. (2013) Smart Meter Devices and the Effect of Feedback on Residential Electricity Consumption: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Northern Ireland. Energy Economics, 36, 729-743.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2012.11.022

[92]   Giordano, V. and Fulli, G. (2012) A Business Case for Smart Grid Technologies: A Systemic Perspective. Energy Policy, 40, 252-259.

[93]   He, X., et al. (2013) How to Engage Consumers in Demand Response: A Contract Perspective. Utilities Policy, 27, 108-122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2013.10.001

[94]   Al-Saleh, Y. and Mahroum, S. (2015) A Critical Review of the Interplay between Policy Instruments and Business Models: Greening the Built Environment a Case in Point. Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, 260-270.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.042

[95]   Richter, M. (2013) Business Model Innovation for Sustainable Energy: German Utilities and Renewable Energy. Energy Policy, 62, 1226-1237.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.038

[96]   Smil, V. (2010) Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara.

[97]   Lehtovaara, M., et al. (2012) Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 4, 44.
https://doi.org/10.5772/54707

[98]   Lynas, M. (2008) Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet. National Geographic Books.
http://www.trans-techresearch.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/LRQ-1.01.pdf#page=69

[99]   Weijermars, R., et al. (2012) Review of Models and Actors in Energy Mix Optimization—Can Leader Visions and Decisions Align with Optimum Model Strategies for Our Future Energy Systems? Energy Strategy Reviews, 1, 5-18.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2011.10.001

[100]   Gore, A. (2009) Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis. Rodale Books. Rodale, Emmaus, PA.

[101]   Council, G.W.E. (2008) Global Wind Energy Outlook 2008. Vol. 19, GWEC, Brussels.

[102]   Lehtovaara, M., et al. (2011) Product Modularity Influences on Firm Performance: Evidence from Bioenergy Technology. Mechanika (Kaunas), 17, 562-569.

[103]   Wüstenhagen, R. and Bilharz, M. (2006) Green Energy Market Development in Germany: Effective Public Policy and Emerging Customer Demand. Energy policy, 34, 1681-1696.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2004.07.013

[104]   Cappers, P., et al. (2012) An Assessment of the Role Mass Market Demand Response Could Play in Contributing to the Management of Variable Generation Integration Issues. Energy Policy, 48, 420-429.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.040

[105]   Fox-Penner, P. (2009) Fix Utilities before They Need a Rescue. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, Watertown, MA.

[106]   Valocchi, M., Juliano, J. and Schurr, A. (2014) Switching Perspectives: Creating New Business Models for a Changing World of Energy, in Smart Grid Applications and Developments. Springer, Berlin, 165-182.

[107]   Piccoli, G. and Pigni, F. (2013) Harvesting External Data: The Potential of Digital Data Streams. MIS Quarterly Executive, 12, 143-154.

[108]   Weiller, C.M. and Pollitt, M.G. (2016) Platform Markets and Energy Services. Smart Grid Handbook, 1-23.

[109]   Eisenmann, T., Parker, G. and Van Alstyne, M.W. (2006) Strategies for Two-Sided Markets. Harvard Business Review, 84, 92.

[110]   Lehr, R.L. (2013) New Utility Business Models: Utility and Regulatory Models for the Modern Era. The Electricity Journal, 26, 35-53.

[111]   Poudineh, R. and Jamasb, T. (2014) Distributed Generation, Storage, Demand Response and Energy Efficiency as Alternatives to Grid Capacity Enhancement. Energy Policy, 67, 222-231.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.073

[112]   Covrig, C.F., et al. (2014) Smart Grid Projects Outlook 2014. JRC Science and Policy Reports.

[113]   Tao, H.Y.S., Bahabry, A. and Cloutier, R. (2015) Customer Centricity in the Smart Grid Model. Procedia Computer Science, 44, 115-124.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.042

[114]   Barley, S. (2011) In Search of a Black Swan. Nature Climate Change, 1, 76-79.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1091

[115]   Richter, M. (2012) Utilities’ Business Models for Renewable Energy: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 2483-2493.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.072

[116]   Gordijn, J. and Akkermans, H. (2007) Business Models for Distributed Generation in a Liberalized Market Environment. Electric Power Systems Research, 77, 1178-1188.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2006.08.008

[117]   Eberle, U., Müller, B. and Von Helmolt, R. (2012) Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Infrastructure: Status 2012. Energy & Environmental Science, 5, 8780-8798.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ee22596d

[118]   Richardson, D.B. (2013) Electric Vehicles and the Electric Grid: A Review of Modeling Approaches, Impacts, and Renewable Energy Integration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 247-254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.042

[119]   Kempton, W. and Tomic, J. (2005) Vehicle-to-Grid Power Implementation: From Stabilizing the Grid to Supporting Large-Scale Renewable Energy. Journal of Power Sources, 144, 280-294.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022

[120]   Goebel, C. (2013) On the Business Value of ICT-Controlled Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging in California. Energy Policy, 53, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.06.053

[121]   Palizban, O., Kauhaniemi, K. and Guerrero, J.M. (2014) Microgrids in Active Network Management—Part I: Hierarchical Control, Energy Storage, Virtual Power Plants, and Market Participation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 36, 428-439.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.016

[122]   Schleicher-Tappeser, R. (2012) How Renewables Will Change Electricity Markets in the Next Five Years. Energy Policy, 48, 64-75.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.04.042

[123]   Armstrong, M., et al. (2013) Optimal Recharging Strategy for Battery-Switch Stations for Electric Vehicles in France. Energy Policy, 60, 569-582.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.089

[124]   Barkenbus, J. (2009) Our Electric Automotive Future: CO2 Savings through a Disruptive Technology. Policy and Society, 27, 399-410.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polsoc.2009.01.005

[125]   Loisel, R., Pasaoglu, G. and Thiel, C. (2014) Large-Scale Deployment of Electric Vehicles in Germany by 2030: An Analysis of Grid-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Grid Concepts. Energy Policy, 65, 432-443.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.029

[126]   Guille, C. and Gross, G. (2009) A Conceptual Framework for the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Implementation. Energy Policy, 37, 4379-4390.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.053

[127]   Jargstorf, J. and Wickert, M. (2013) Offer of Secondary Reserve with a Pool of Electric Vehicles on the German Market. Energy Policy, 62, 185-195.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.088

[128]   Hill, D.M., Agarwal, A.S. and Ayello, F. (2012) Fleet Operator Risks for Using Fleets for V2G Regulation. Energy Policy, 41, 221-231.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.10.040

[129]   Gerpott, T.J. and Paukert, M. (2013) Determinants of Willingness to Pay for Smart Meters: An Empirical Analysis of Household Customers in Germany. Energy Policy, 61, 483-495.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.012

[130]   San Román, T.G., et al. (2011) Regulatory Framework and Business Models for Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Infrastructure, Agents, and Commercial Relationships. Energy Policy, 39, 6360-6375.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.037

[131]   Wissner, M. (2011) The Smart Grid—A Saucerful of Secrets? Applied Energy, 88, 2509-2518.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.042

[132]   Stoll, P., Brandt, N. and Nordström, L. (2014) Including Dynamic CO2 Intensity with Demand Response. Energy Policy, 65, 490-500.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.044

[133]   Verbong, G.P., Beemsterboer, S. and Sengers, F. (2013) Smart Grids or Smart Users? Involving Users in Developing a Low Carbon Electricity Economy. Energy Policy, 52, 117-125.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.003

[134]   Dave, S., Sooriyabandara, M. and Yearworth, M. (2013) System Behaviour Modelling for Demand Response Provision in a Smart Grid. Energy Policy, 61, 172-181.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.098

[135]   Cappers, P., et al. (2013) An Assessment of Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in US Electricity Markets. Energy Policy, 62, 1031-1039.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.08.003

[136]   Curtius, H.C., Künzel, K. and Loock, M. (2012) Generic Customer Segments and Business Models for Smart Grids. der markt, 51, 63-74.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12642-012-0076-0

[137]   Warren, P. (2014) A Review of Demand-Side Management Policy in the UK. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, 941-951.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.009

[138]   Chesbrough, H. (2010) Business Model Innovation: Opportunities and Barriers. Long Range Planning, 43, 354-363.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.010

 
 
Top