ABSTRACT Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that enables optimal absorption of calcium from the intestine for bone mineralization. Vitamin D receptor is present in many organs, and there has been of interest in potential functions of vitamin D, particularly in cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is thought to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism by which vitamin D might improve the outcome of cardiovascular disease outcomes remains unclear. However, potential hypotheses have been proposed, including that vitamin D improves the outcome by down-regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by direct effects on the heart and vasculature. The estimated worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency of 50% in elderly populations underlines the importance of vitamin D deficiency as a public health issue. The elderly persons have high rates of comorbid conditions, including cardiovascular disease. This article reviews changes in vitamin D level with age, the impact of vitamin D deficiency on agerelated cardiovascular disease, and different treatment options available for vitamin D deficiency in older populations.
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