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 OJAS  Vol.8 No.4 , October 2018
Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Sheep and Goats in Kassala State, Sudan
Abstract:
Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of PPR disease in sheep and goats and its associated risk factors in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. Across sectional study was conducted during the period from 30th August to 25th November 2015. The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire survey and a total of 918 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy unvaccinated sheep and goats in different localities in State of Kassala. A total of 546 sheep and 372 goats were tested for specific antibodies to nucleoprotein (NP) by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The apparent overall prevalence of PPR antibodies in Kassala was 58.2% while the true prevalence was calculated to be 61.3%. The apparent prevalence in sheep and goats was 68.1% and 43.5% respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors had significant associations with a cELISA positive status: locality, species, age, breed, husbandry system, housing mode, animals movement (p = 0.000) and animals sharing pasture and water (p = 0.003), while sex and newly introduced animals were not significant risk factors (p = 0.771) (p = 0.050) respectively. Factors found that significantly associated (p < 0.05) with increased odds of being cELISA positive in multivariate analysis were localities, species, age and newly introduced animals. The prevalence differed between localities and was the highest in the River Atbara (84.0%) locality, whereas it was lowest in Delta North (29.0%). No significant difference was observed among the sexes. However, the prevalence differed in different age groups and was 52.25% in animals of less than six months old; 49.3% were between seven months and two years old and 65.5% were above two years old. In different husbandry systems, the prevalence was 47.9%, 73.0% and 49.2% in intensive, open grazing and pastoral systems respectively. Housing type effects were also observed; the highest prevalence was in animals housed in metal fence (83.3%). The movement pattern showed significant effect, where the prevalence was the highest (81.3%) in animals that move inter-states/inter-localities. It is concluded that the disease is endemic in Kassala State, high prevalent in sheep and goats, posing a threat to animal exportation, and may have a serious economic influence. Owners and herders should compulsorily vaccinate their animals yearly and animals should be investigated periodically for implementation of crucial eradication program.
Cite this paper: Saeed, F. , Abdel-Aziz, S. and Gumaa, M. (2018) Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Sheep and Goats in Kassala State, Sudan. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 8, 381-395. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2018.84029.
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