JWARP  Vol.10 No.9 , September 2018
Study of Lowlands Drainage Problems, Case Study Kamal El-Den Hessen Reclaimed Area, North Sinai, Egypt
Abstract: This paper deals mainly to study and solve field drainage problems in Kamal El-Den Hessen new reclaimed area (1650 hectares), North Sinai Egypt, where many farmers complain about the formation of water ponds in their lands, bad soil drainage, soil salinity, and low yields rate. Intensive field investigations were carried out regarding, topographic survey, digging 22 boreholes, instilling observation wells, measuring groundwater salinity and assessing the existing drainage network. The results showed that ground surface levels were ranging from 1.5 m to 4.28 m above mean sea level, predominated soil was sandy with a permeability coefficient ranged from 0.82 to 2.68 m/day, an impervious clay layer lies at 6.0 to 7.0 m below ground surface, and the groundwater salinity ranges from 4 to 12 dS/m high salinity for water ponds were observed at the observation wells that lay in the lift side of Kamal El-Den Hessen Canal. Lands surrounding Kamal El-Den Hessen Canal have high levels. The measured groundwater depths of the western observation wells were 0.50 m below ground surface and in the eastern wells ranging from 1.0 to 1.50 m. The analysis of results showed that field drainage problems that increased groundwater levels were: 1) infiltration water coming from the high-cultivated areas at the lift bank of Kamal El-Den Hessen Canal, 2) the impervious clay layers increasing the horizontal infiltration towards low lands and increase ponds areas. 3) Main Gelbana Drain cross-section needs dredging. It is recommended to dredge the Main Gelbana Drain and modified its cross-section to collect water from water ponds, filling the lowland areas utilizing sandy soil in the high lands, adopting types of crops grown to match with crop salt tolerant levels and soil and water salinity levels and constructing subsurface drainage network to decrease groundwater levels.
Cite this paper: Gabr, M. (2018) Study of Lowlands Drainage Problems, Case Study Kamal El-Den Hessen Reclaimed Area, North Sinai, Egypt. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 10, 857-869. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.109049.

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