JBM  Vol.6 No.9 , September 2018
The Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on Collagen Deposition in the Skin: A Minireview
Abstract: The fruit of Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, has an extensive history of use as a food and medicine throughout the tropics. Among its many uses, noni was believed to promote skin health. In vivo wound healing studies reveal that noni fruit juice ingestion increases collagen production and deposition via increased expression of extracellular matrix protein genes. Noni juice also appears to promote fibroblast proliferation. In vitro studies indicate that noni juice also protects fibroblasts via activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and protects extracellular matrix collagen by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases. In vitro and in vivo study findings are corroborated by a clinical trial where hospitalization times were reduced, and wound granulation quality was improved in pediatric burn patients. The findings of other human studies also indicate that noni juice has the potential to protect skin collagen. These include reduced plasma reactive oxygen species in cigarette smokers, lowered skin glycation levels in overweight and obese adults, as well as reduced skin glycation levels among noni juice consumers within the general population. These in vitro, in vivo and human studies reveal that there are multiple mechanisms of action through which noni juice promotes collagen synthesis and inhibits collagen degradation. The procollagen properties of noni juice aid wound healing, increase skin elasticity, and improve the overall appearance of the skin.
Cite this paper: West, B. (2018) The Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on Collagen Deposition in the Skin: A Minireview. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.69001.

[1]   Pullar, J.M., Carr, A.C. and Vissers, M.C.M. (2017) The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health. Nutrients, 9, 866.

[2]   Perez-Sanchez, A., Barrajon-Catalan, E., Herranz-Lopez, M. and Micol, V. (2018) Nutraceuticals for Skin Care: A Comprehensive Review of Human Clinical Studies. Nutrients, 10, 403.

[3]   Stipcevic, T., Piljac, J. and Vanden Berghe, D. (2006) Effect of Different Flavonoids on Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 61, 27-32.

[4]   Morton, J. (1992) The Ocean-Going Noni, or Indian Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and Some of Its “Colorful” Relatives. Economic Botany, 46, 241-256.

[5]   Whistler, W.A. (1992) Polynesian Herbal Medicine. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hong Kong.

[6]   Petard, P. (1986) Quelques Plantes Utiles de Polynesie Francaise et Raau Tahiti. Editions Haere Po No Tahiti, Papeete.

[7]   Brown, F.B.H. (1935) Flora of Southeastern Polynesia. III. Dicotyledons. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

[8]   Girardi, C., Butaud, J.F., Ollier, C., Ingert, N., Weniger, B., Raharivelomanana, P. and Moretti, C. (2015) Herbal Medicine in the Marquesas Islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 161, 200-213.

[9]   West, B.J., Deng, S., Isami, F., Uwaya, A. and Jensen, C.J. (2018) The Potential Health Benefits of Noni Juice: A Review of Human Intervention Studies. Foods, 7, 58.

[10]   Pande, M., Naiker, M., Mills, G., Singh, N. and Voro, T. (2005) The Kura Files: Qualitative Social Survey. Pacific Health Surveillance and Response, 12, 85-93.

[11]   Westendorf, J. and Mettlich, C. (2009) The Benefits of Noni Juice: An Epidemiological Evaluation in Europe. Journal of Medicinal Food Plants, 1, 64-79.

[12]   Nayak, B.S., Isitor, G.N., Maxwell, A., Bhogadi, V. and Ramdath, D.D. (2007) Wound-Healing Activity of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Juice on Diabetes-Induced Rats. Journal of Wound Care, 16, 83-86.

[13]   Almeida-Souza, F., Cardoso, F.O., Souza, B.V., do Valle, T.Z., de Sá, J.C., Oliveira Idos, S., de Souza, C.S., Moragas Tellis, C.J., Chagas, M.S., Behrens, M.D., Abreu-Silva A.L. and Calabrese, K.S. (2016) Morinda citrifolia Linn. Reduces Parasite Load and Modulates Cytokines and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10, e0004900.

[14]   Khoswanto, C. (2010) Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Gel Affect on Post-Extraction Fibroblast Acceleration. Dental Journal: Majalah Kedokteran Gigi, 43, 31-34.

[15]   Lin, Y.L., Lin, H.W., Chen, Y.C., Yang, D.J., Li, C.C. and Chang, Y.Y. (2017) Hepatoprotective Effects of Naturally Fermented Noni Juice against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 80, 212-221.

[16]   Basar, S., Uhlenhut, K., Hogger, P., Schone, F. and Westendorf, J. (2010) Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Fruit. Phytotherapy Research, 24, 38-42.

[17]   Lin, Y.L., Chang, Y.Y., Yang, D.J., Tzang, B.S. and Chen, Y.C. (2013) Beneficial Effects of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Juice on Livers of High-Fat Dietary Hamsters. Food Chemistry, 140, 31-38.

[18]   Duarte, S., Baber, J., Fujii, T. and Coito, A.J. (2015) Matrix Metalloproteinases in Liver Injury, Repair and Fibrosis. Matrix Biology, 44-46, 147-156.

[19]   Deng, S., West, B.J., Palu, A.K. and Jensen, C.J. (2011) Determination and Comparative Analysis of Major Iridoids in Different Parts and Cultivation Sources of Morinda citrifolia. Phytochemical Analysis, 22, 26-30.

[20]   Li, Y., Sato, T., Metori, K., Koike, K., Che, Q.M. and Takahashi, S. (1998) The Promoting Effects of Geniposidic Acid and Aucubin in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaves on Collagen Synthesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 21, 1306-1310.

[21]   Li, Y., Metori, K., Koike, K., Che, Q.M. and Takahashi, S. (1999) Improvement in the Turnover Rate of the Stratum Corneum in False Aged Model Rats by the Administration of Geniposidic Acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 22, 582-585.

[22]   Kim, S.W., Jo, B.K., Jeong, J.H., Choi, S.U. and Hwang, Y.I. (2005) Induction of Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Normal Human Fibroblasts by Anthraquinone Isolated from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit. Journal of Medicinal Food, 8, 552-555.

[23]   Senger, D.R. and Cao, S. (2016) Diabetic Wound Healing and Activation of Nrf2 by Herbal Medicine. Journal of Nature and Science, 2, pii: e247.

[24]   G?gotek, A. and Skrzydlewska, E. (2015) The Role of Transcription Factor Nrf2 in Skin Cells Metabolism. Archives of Dermatological Research, 307, 385-396.

[25]   Masuda, M., Murata, K., Naruto, S., Uwaya, A., Isami, F. and Matsuda, H. (2012) Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Inhibitory Activities of Morinda citrifolia Seed Extract and Its Constituents in UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 35, 210-215.

[26]   Lin, C.F., Ni, C.L., Huang, Y.L., Sheu, S.J. and Chen, C.C. (2007) Lignans and Anthraquinones from the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia. Natural Product Research, 21, 1199-1204.

[27]   Deng, S., Palu, A.K., West, B.J., Su, C.X., Zhou, B.N. and Jensen, J.C. (2007) Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Constituents of the Fruits of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Collected in Tahiti. Journal of Natural Products, 70, 859-862.

[28]   Bissonnette, E.Y., Tremblay, G.M., Turmel, V., Pirotte, B. and Reboud-Ravaux, M. (2009) Coumarinic Derivatives Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Alveolar Macrophages, But Their Anti-Elastase Activity Is Essential to Reduce Lung Inflammation in Vivo. International Immunopharmacology, 9, 49-54.

[29]   Oshima, N., Narukawa, Y., Takeda, T. and Kiuchi, F. (2013) Collagenase Inhibitors from Viola yedoensis. Journal of Natural Medicines, 67, 240-245.

[30]   West, B.J., Deng, S., Uwaya, A., Isami, F., Abe, Y., Yamagishi, S. and Jensen, C.J. (2016) Iridoids Are Natural Glycation Inhibitors. Glycoconjugate Journal, 33, 671-681.

[31]   Vincenti, M.P. and Brinckerhoff, C.E. (2004) Transcriptional Regulation of Collagenase (MMP-1, MMP-13) Genes in Arthritis: Integration of Complex Signaling Pathways for the Recruitment of Gene-Specific Transcription Factors. Arthritis Research, 4, 157-164.

[32]   Ho, J.N., Lee, Y.H., Lee, Y.D., Jun, W.J., Kim, H.K., Hong, B.S., Shin, D.H. and Cho, H.Y. (2005) Inhibitory Effect of Aucubin Isolated from Eucommia ulmoides against UVB-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 69, 2227-2231.

[33]   Rippe, R.A., Schrum, L.W., Stefanovic, B., Solís-Herruzo, J.A. and Brenner, D.A. (1999) NF-kappaB Inhibits Expression of the Alpha1(I) Collagen Gene. DNA and Cell Biology, 18, 751-761.

[34]   Liu, G., Bode, A., Ma, W.Y., Sang, S., Ho, C.T. and Dong, Z. (2001) Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP-1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line. Cancer Research, 61, 5749-5756.

[35]   West, B.J. and Sabin, R. (2012) Efficacy of a Morinda citrifolia Based Skin Care Regimen. Current Research Journal of Biological Science, 4, 310-314.

[36]   Kim, S.H. and Jang, H.J. (2016) Study on the Bioactive Characteristics of Morinda citrifolia as a Cosmetic Raw Material. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, 42, 183-193.

[37]   Bischoff, J.E., Arruda, E.M. and Grosh, K. (2000) Finite Element Modeling of Human Skin Using an Isotropic, Nonlinear Elastic Constitutive Model. Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 645-652.

[38]   Wang, M.Y., Lutfiyya, M.N., Weidenbacher-Hoper, V., Anderson, G., Su, C.X. and West, B.J. (2009) Antioxidant Activity of Noni Juice in Heavy Smokers. Chemistry Central Journal, 3, 13.

[39]   Wang, M.Y., Peng, L., Jensen, C.J., Deng, S. and West, B.J. (2013) Noni Juice Reduces Lipid Peroxidation-Derived DNA Adducts in Heavy Smokers. Food Science and Nutrition, 1, 141-149.

[40]   Tu, Y. and Quan, T. (2016) Oxidative Stress and Human Skin Connective Tissue Aging. Cosmetics, 3, 28.

[41]   Morita, A., Torii, K., Maeda, A. and Yamaguchi, Y. (2009) Molecular Basis of Tobacco Smoke-Induced Premature Skin Aging. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceed-ings, 14, 53-55.

[42]   Ma, D.L., Chen, M., Su, C.X. and West, B.J. (2013) In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Deacetylasperulosidic Acid in Noni. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 2013, Article ID: 804504.

[43]   West, B.J., Uwaya, A., Isami, F., Deng, S., Nakajima, S. and Jensen, C.J. (2014) Antiglycation Activity of Iridoids and Their Food Sources. International Journal of Food Science, 2014, Article ID: 276950.

[44]   Meerwaldt, R., Graaff, R., Oomen, P.H.N., Links, T.P., Jager, J.J., Alderson, N.L., Thorpe, S.R., Baynes, J.W., Gans, R.O.B. and Smit, A.J. (2004) Simple Non-Invasive Assessment of Advanced Glycation Endproduct Accumulation. Diabetologia, 47, 1324-1330.

[45]   Alikhani, Z., Alikhani, M., Boyd, C.M., Nagao, K., Trackman, P.C. and Graves, D.T. (2005) Advanced Glycation End Products Enhance Expression of Pro-Apoptotic Genes and Stimulate Fibroblast Apoptosis through Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Pathways. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 12087-12095.

[46]   Niu, Y., Cao, X., Song, F., Xie, T., Ji, X., Miao, M., Dong, J., Tian, M., Lin, Y. and Lu, S. (2012) Reduced Dermis Thickness and AGE Accumulation in Diabetic Abdominal Skin. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 11, 224-230.

[47]   Corstjens, H., Dicanio, D., Muizzuddin, N., Neven, A., Sparacio, R., Declercq, L. and Maes, D. (2008) Glycation Associated Skin Autofluorescence and Skin Elasticity Are Related to Chronological Age and Body Mass Index of Healthy Subjects. Experimental Gerontology, 43, 663-667.