Back
 JEP  Vol.9 No.9 , August 2018
Agent-Based Modeling: An Application to Natural Resource Management
Abstract: Computer programs have been categorized as a useful tool to evaluate the complexity of systems. In fact, agent-based modeling (ABM) is considered a new method to model complex systems characterized by the role of independent and interrelating agents. Simulations contribute in estimating and comprehending emerging behaviors that require the development of new regulations for local agents that would make improvements to the system. This paper offers an example of a methodology and a process utilized to develop a simulation model named Befergyonet, an ABM used to conduct computer simulations within a spatio-intertemporal environment. The methodology discussed in this paper is intended solely to stimulate the use of innovative computer programs to simulate complex systems as an approach to represent real world events and may be a methodological guide for readers interested in developing their own ABM.
Cite this paper: González, I. , D’Souza, G. and Ismailova, Z. (2018) Agent-Based Modeling: An Application to Natural Resource Management. Journal of Environmental Protection, 9, 991-1019. doi: 10.4236/jep.2018.99062.
References

[1]   Eberlen, J., Scholz, G. and Gagliolo, M. (2017) Simulate This! An Introduction to Agent-Based Models and Their Power to Improve Your Research Practice. International Review of Social Psychology, 30, 149-160.
https://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.115

[2]   Macal, C. and North, M. (2010) Tutorial on Agent Based Modelling and Simulation. Journal of Simulation, 4, 151-162.
https://doi.org/10.1057/jos.2010.3

[3]   Chi, H. (2000) Computer Simulation Models for Sustainability. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1, 154-167.
https://doi.org/10.1108/14676370010371894

[4]   Reynolds, C. (1999) Individual-Based Models.
http://www.red3d.com/cwr/ibm.html

[5]   Anthes, G. (2003) Agent-Based Modeling of Complex, Adaptive Systems. Computerworld.
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/77858/FAQ_Agent_based_ modeling_ of_complex_
adaptive_systems


[6]   Bonabeau, E. (2002) Agent-Based Modeling: Methods and Techniques for Simulating Human Systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 7280-7287.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.082080899

[7]   Li, Y., Lawley, M.A., Siscovick, D.S., Zhang, D. and Pagan, J.A. (2016) Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions. Preventing Chronic Disease, 13, Article ID: 150561.
https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150561

[8]   Bourarfa, S., Blom, H.A.P. and Curran, R. (2016) Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Coordination by Airline Operations Control. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 4, 9-20.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TETC.2015.2439633

[9]   Joandet, G.E. and Cartwright. T.C. (1975) Modeling Beef Production Systems. Journal of Animal Science, 41, 1238-1246.
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1975.4141238x

[10]   Axelrod, R. (1997) Resources for Agent-Based Modeling. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 20.
https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400822300-012

[11]   Thiele, J.C. and Grimm, V. (2010) NetLogo Meets R: Linking Agent-Based Models with a Toolbox for Their Analysis. Environmental Modeling and Software, 25, 972-974.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.02.008

[12]   Key, N. and Sneeringer, S. (2011) Climate Change Policy and the Adoption of Methane Digesters on Livestock Operations. USDA-ERS Economic Research Report, Report No. 111.
https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2131270

[13]   Bakshy, E. and Wilensky, U. (2007) Turtle Histories and Alternate Universes; Exploratory Modeling with NetLogo and Mathematica. In: North, M.J., Macal, C.M. and Sallach, D.L., Eds., Proceedings of the Agent 2007 Conference on Complex Interaction and Social Emergence, Argonne National Laboratory and Northwestern University, Lemont, 47-158.

[14]   Schuster, D., Undersander, D., Schaefer, D., Klemme, R.M., Siemens, M. and Smith, L. (2001) Stocker Enterprise Budgets for Grass-Based Systems. A3718, University of Wisconsin-Extension.
http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A3718.pdf

[15]   William, J.C. and Hall, M.H. (1994) Four Steps to Rotational Grazing. Cooperative Extension Service. The Pennsylvania State University: Agronomy Facts 43.
http://www.forages.psu.edu/agfacts/agfact43.pdf

[16]   ZoBell, D., Burrell, C. and Bagley, C. (1999) Raising Beef Cattle on Few Acres. Extension Service. Utah State University, Logan.

[17]   Rayburn, E. (2005) Pasture Management for Pasture-Finished Beef. Extension Service. West Virginia University.
https://extension.wvu.edu/agriculture/pasture-hay-forage/pasture-management

[18]   Rayburn, E. (2008) Animal Production Systems for Pasture-Based Livestock Production. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Ithaca, 28-78.

[19]   Blaser, R.E., Hammes, R.C., Fontenot, J.P., Bryant, H.T., Polan, C.E., Wolf, D.D., McClaugherty, F.S., Kline, R.G. and Moore, J.S. (1986) Forage-Animal Management Systems. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 86-87.

[20]   Virginia Forage Research Station [VAFS] (1969) Managing Forages for Animal Production: 1949-1969 History and Research Findings, Virginia Forage Research Station. Research Division, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg.

[21]   Sollenberger, L.E. and Vanzant, E.S. (2011) Interrelationships among Forage Nutritive Value and Quantity and Individual Animal Performance. Crop Science, 51, 420-432.
https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2010.07.0408

[22]   Rayburn, E. and Lozier, J. (2002) Pasture-Based Beef Systems for Appalachia Preliminary Report of a Nationwide Survey.
https://extension.wvu.edu/files/d/e43e73a1-ba8b-47ec-97c2-aa1a6767de0e/growing-and-selling-
pasture-finished-beef.pdf

[23]   Hahn, W.F. (2012) Meat Price Spreads. Economic Research Service.
https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/38951/PDF

[24]   Weinheimer, B. (2008) Value of Manure from Beef Cattle Feedyards. Texas Cattle Feeders Association.
http://www.tcfa.org

[25]   Baylis, K. and Paulson, N. (2011) Potential for Carbon Offsets from Anaerobic Digesters in Livestock Production. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 446-456.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.032

[26]   US Department of Agriculture [USDA] (2009) Web Soil Survey. Natural Resource Conservation Service.
http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/WebSoilSurvey.aspx

[27]   Cacho, O.J. (1998) Solving Bioeconomic Optimal Control Models Numerically. In: Gooday, J., Ed., Proceedings of the Bioeconomic Workshop, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Conference, University of New England, ABARE Bioeconomic Workshop, Armidale, 13-26.

[28]   Ward, R. (2003) Soil Organic Matter and N Cycling. The Leading Edge Journal of No-Till, 2, 94-97.
http://www.notill.org

[29]   Costanza, V. and Neuman, C.E. (1997) Managing Cattle Grazing under Degraded Forests: An Optimal Control Approach. Ecological Economics, 21, 123-139.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(96)00098-5

[30]   Rayburn, E., Hall, M., Murphy, W. and Vough, L. (1998) Pasture Production. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. Proceedings from the Grazing in the Northeast Workshop, Camp Hill, March 25-26 1998, 13-50.

[31]   Parsch, L.D., Popp, M.P. and Loewer, O.J. (1997) Stocking Rate Risk for Pasture-Fed Steers under Weather Uncertainty. Journal of Range Management, 50, 541-549.
https://doi.org/10.2307/4003711

[32]   Evanylo, G. and Peterson, P. (2000) Availability of N in Biosolids for Tall Grass Hay Production. Final Report to the T.M. Helper Endowment Committee. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 9.

[33]   Lee, R., Boyer, D.G. and Dickerson, W.H. (1979) Global Radiation in West Virginia. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. West Virginia University, Morgantown, 665T.

[34]   Wilensky, U. (1999) NetLogo. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling. Northwestern University, Evanston.
http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/

[35]   Wilensky, U. (2005) NetLogo Wolf Sheep Predation (Docked) Model. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling. Northwestern University, Evanston.
http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/WolfSheepPredation(docked)

[36]   Rayburn, E. (2006) Managing and Marketing for Pasture-Based Livestock Production. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Ithaca, 27-51.

[37]   Yohn, C. and Rayburn, E. (2000) The Production of Rationally Grazed Pasture in Jefferson County. Extension Service. West Virginia University.
https://extension.wvu.edu/agriculture/pasture-hay-forage/pasture-based-livestock

[38]   Holechek, J.L. (1988) An Approach for Setting the Stocking Rate. Ragelands, 10, 10-14.

[39]   Rayburn, E. (2003) Forage Production Risk in the Northeast. Extension Service. West Virginia University, Morgantown.

[40]   Pang, H., Makarechian, M., Basarab, J.A. and Berg, R.T. (1999) Structure of a Dynamic Simulation Model for Beef Cattle Production Systems. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 79, 409-417.
https://doi.org/10.4141/A99-020

[41]   Ferreira, W.N. (2001) BUDSYS: A New Tool for Farm Enterprise Analysis. Cooperative Extension Service. Clemson University, EER 195.
https://www.clemson.edu/extension/agribusiness/agribusinessmanagement/enterprise-budgets.html

[42]   Eberly, E. and Groover, G. (2011) 2011 Virginia Farm Business Management Livestock Budgets. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Publication 446-048.
http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/446/446-048/446-048.html

[43]   Redfearn, D.D. and Bidwell, T.G. (2009) Stocking Rate: The Key to Successful Livestock Production. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, PSS-2871.
http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-2050/PSS-2871web.pdf

[44]   Laca, E.C. (2000) Modelling Spatial Aspects of Plant-Animal Interactions. In: Hodgson, J., Lemaire, G., et al., Eds., Grassland Ecophysiology and Grazing Ecology, CAB International, New York, 209-231.
https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851994529.0209

[45]   Bhattacharyya, S.C. (2011) Energy Economics: Concepts, Issues, Markets and Governance. 1st Edition, Springer, New York.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-85729-268-1

[46]   Barker, C.J. (2001) Methane Fuel Gas from Livestock Wastes a Summary. Water Quality and Waste Management. North Carolina State University.
https://www.bae.ncsu.edu/people/barker/

[47]   Beddoes, J.C., Bracmort, K.S., Burns, R.T. and Lazarus, W.F. (2007) An Analysis of Energy Production Costs from Anaerobic Digestion Systems on U.S. Livestock Production Facilities. Technical Note No. 1.
http://www.biogas.psu.edu/pdfs/TechNote1BiogasEconomics.pdf

[48]   Wilensky, U. (2005) NetLogo Wolf Sheep Production (System Dynamics) Model. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling. Northwestern University, Evanston.

[49]   Balsam, J. and Ryan, D. (2006) Anaerobic Digestor of Animal Wastes: Factors to Consider. National Center for Appropriate Technology-ATTRA.
http://www.wcasfmra.org/biogas_docs/ATTRA%20anaerobic.pdf

[50]   Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D.W., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D.C., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M. and Van Dorland, R. (2007) Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L., Eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 131-234.

[51]   Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS] (2011) Section-4 Manure Production.
http://www.wy.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/wycnmp/sec4.html

[52]   US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] (1999) Livestock Manure Management.
https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/cafo_report.pdf

[53]   US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] (2004) Market Opportunities for Biogas Recovery Systems: A Guide to Identifying Candidates for On-Farm and Centralized Systems. The AgSTAR Program, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 1-34.

[54]   Leuer, E.R., Hyde, J. and Richard, T.L. (2008) Investing in Methane Digesters on Pennsylvania Dairy Farms: Implications of Scale Economies and Environmental Programs. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 37, 188-203.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1068280500002999

[55]   Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J. and Common, M. (2003) Natural Resource and Environmental Economics. 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Upper Saddle River, 364-375.

[56]   Rodriguez, I. and D’Souza, G. (2013) Land as a Renewable Resource: Integrating Climate, Energy, and Profitability Goals Using NetLogo. Scholars’ Press, 152.
https://www.scholars-press.com/

[57]   Evans, J., Sperow, M., D’Souza, G.E. and Rayburn, E.B. (2007) Stochastic Simulation of Pasture-Raised Beef Production Systems and Implications for the Appalachian Cow-Calf Sector. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 30, 27-51.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v30n04_04

[58]   Rodriguez, I., D’Souza, G. and Griggs, T. (2013) Can Spatial Dependence Enhance Industry Sustainability? The Case of Pasture-Based Beef. Environmental Economics, 4, 93-102.

[59]   Rayburn, E., Hall, M., Murphy, W. and Vough, L. (2006) Forage Production for Pasture-Based Livestock Production. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Ithaca, 7-60.

[60]   Judy, G. (2011) The Economics of High Density Grazing. Proceeding of the Appalachian Grazing Conference, Morgantown, 4-5 March 2011.

[61]   Ribaudo, M., Gollehon, N., Aillery, M., Kaplan, J., Johansson, R., Agapoff, J., Christensen, L., Breneman, V. and Peters, M. (2003) Manure Management for Water Quality Costs to Animal Feeding Operations of Applying Manure Nutrients to Land. AER-824.
https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.757884

 
 
Top