AA  Vol.1 No.2 , November 2011
Virgin Texas: Treponematosis-Associated Periosteal Reaction 6 Millenia in the Past
ABSTRACT
In bioarchaeology, skeletal biology and paleopathology, periosteal reaction has been variably considered as a non-specific sign of trauma and alternatively as having potentially diagnostic implications. Examination of sixth millennium before present Texas cemeteries falsifies the non-specific trauma hypothesis, while examination of a second millennium before present site reveals a new (at least to Texas) population phenomenon. In contrast to isolated bumps and osteomyelitis, the study of periosteal reaction in early Texas is the study of “virgins,” individuals spared the phenomenon that cause such bone alteration. It is only in the second millennium before present that periosteal reaction becomes widespread, both in population penetrance and in extent of skeleton affected. That pattern has previously been documented for the treponematosis yaws, similar to what has been found in other areas of Archaic North America.

Cite this paper
nullRothschild, B. , Rothschild, C. & Doran, G. (2011). Virgin Texas: Treponematosis-Associated Periosteal Reaction 6 Millenia in the Past. Advances in Anthropology, 1, 15-18. doi: 10.4236/aa.2011.12003.
References
[1]   Anderson, J. E. (1968). The people of Fairty: An Osteological analysis of an Iroquois ossuary. National Museum of Canada Bulletin, 193, 28-129.

[2]   Buikstra, J. E., & Cook, D. C. (1980). Paleopathology: An American account. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9, 433-470. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.09.100180.002245

[3]   Byers, S. N. (1998) The skeletal biology of the lower Mississippi River valley. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 26, 116.

[4]   Cockburn, E. (1995). Forty years on: Are Aidan Cockburn’s theories still valid? In O. Dutour, G. Palfi, J. Berato & J.-P. Brun (Eds.), L’Origin de la syphilis en Europe avant ou apres 1493 (pp. 23-26). Toulon: Centre Archeologique du Var.

[5]   Cook, D. C. (1998) Syphilis? Not quite: Paleoepidemiology in an evolutionary context in the Midwest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 26, 70.

[6]   Cook, D. C. (1984). Subsistence and health in the lower Illinois valley: Osteological evidence. In M. N. Cohen & G. J. Armelagos (Eds.), Paleopathology at the origins of agriculture (pp. 235-269). Orlando: Academic Press.

[7]   Cook, D. (1976a). The epidemiology of periostitis in prehistoric Illinois. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 44, 171.

[8]   Cook, D. C. (1976b). Pathologic states and disease processes in illinois woodland populations: An epidemiologic approach. Ph.D. Thesis, Chicago: University of Chicago.

[9]   Goodman, A. H., Brooke Thomas, R., Swedlund, A. C., & Armelagos, G. J. (1988). Biocultural perspectives on stress in prehistoric, historical and contemporary population research. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 31, 169-202. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310509

[10]   Helfet, A. J. (1944). Acute manifestations of Yaws of bone and joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 26B, 672-685.

[11]   Hershkovitz, I., Rothschild, B. M., Wish-Baratz, S., & Rothschild, C. (1995). Natural variation and differential diagnosis of skeletal changes in Bejel (endemic syphilis). In O. Dutour, G. Palfi, J. Berato & J.-P. Brun (Eds.), The origin of syphilis in Europe (pp. 81-87). Toulon: Centre Archeologique du Var.

[12]   Hudson, E. H. (1958). The treponematoses-or treponematosis? British Journal of Venereal Disease, 34, 22-24.

[13]   Hunt, D., & Johnson, A. L. (1923). Yaws a study based on over 2000 cases treated on American Somoa. United States Naval Bulletin, 18, 559-581.

[14]   Hurley, M. F., Scully, O. M., & McCutcheon, S. W. (1994). Late Viking age and medieval waterford. Excavations 1986-1992. Water- ford: Waterford Corporation.

[15]   Ishai A., Bikle P. C., & Ungerleider L. G. (2006). Temporal dynamics of face repetition suppression. Brain Research Bulletin, 70, 289-295. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.06.002

[16]   Katzenberg, M. A. (1992). Changing diet and health in pre- and proto- historic Ontario. University of Pennsylvania MASCA Research Pa- pers in Science and Archeology, 9, 23-31.

[17]   Manchester, K. (1988). Cannington. Journal of Archaeological Science, 15, 51.

[18]   McCarty, D. J., & Koopman, W. J. (1993). Arthritis and allied con- ditions. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

[19]   Moss, W. L., & Biegelow, G. H. (1922). Yaws: An analysis of 1046 cases in the Dominican Republic. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hos- pital, 33, 43-47.

[20]   Powell, M. L., & Cook, D. C. (2005). The myth of syphilis: The natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainsville: University Press of Florida.

[21]   Powell, M. L., & Eisenberg, L. E. (1998). Syphilis in mound builders' bones: Treponematosis in the prehistoric Southwest. American Jour- nal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 26, 180.

[22]   Power, C. (1992). The spread of syphilis and a possible early case in Waterford. Archaeology of Ireland, 6, 20-21.

[23]   Resnick, D. (2002). Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders. Philadelphia: Saunders.

[24]   Rose, J. C. (1985). Gone to a better land. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, Fayetteville, 25, 1-216.

[25]   Rothschild, B. M. (1982). Rheumatology: A primary care approach. New York: Yorke Medical Press.

[26]   Rothschild, B. M., & Martin, L. D. (1993). Paleopathology: Disease in the fossil record. London: CRC Press.

[27]   Rothschild, B. M, & Martin, L. D. (2006). Skeletal impact of disease. Albuquerque: New Mexico Museum of Natural History Press.

[28]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rogers, R. (2010). Climate and New World periosteal reaction patterns: Implications for migration routes into the Western Hemisphere. Historical Biology, 21, 115-122. doi:10.1080/08912960903281504

[29]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (2000). Occurrence and transitions among the treponematoses in North America. Chungara, Revista de Antropologia Chilena, 32, 147-155.

[30]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1998a). Pseudoscience and treponemal disease in the Western Pacific. Current Anthropology, 40, 69-71. doi:10.1086/515803

[31]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1998b). Recognition of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in skeletal remains. Journal of Rheumatology, 25, 2221-2227.

[32]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1998c). Skeletal examination- based recognition of treponematoses: A four continent odyssey of denouement, transition and spread. Bulletin de la Memoire Sociéte Anthropologie de Paris, 10, 29-40. doi:10.3406/bmsap.1998.2500

[33]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1996). Treponemal disease in the new world. Current Anthropology, 37, 555-561. doi:10.1086/204519

[34]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1995a). Distinction des maladies treponemiques: Syphilis, Pian et Bejel a partir des differences de leurs atteintes osseuses respectives. In O. Dutour, G. Palfi, J. Berato & J.-P. Brun (Eds.), L’Origin de la Syphilis en Europe—Avant ou Apres 1493 (pp. 68-71). Toulon: Centre Archeologique du Var.

[35]   Rothschild, B. M., & Rothschild, C. (1995b). Treponemal disease revisited: Skeletal discriminators for Yaws, Bejel and venereal syphi- lis. Clinical Infectious Disease, 20, 1402-1408. doi:10.1093/clinids/20.5.1402

[36]   Rothschild, C., & Rothschild, B. M. (1994). Syphilis, Yaws and Bejel: Population distribution in North America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 94, 174-175.

[37]   Rothschild, B. M., & Yoon, B. H. (1982). Thyroid acropachy com- plicated by lymphatic obstruction. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 25, 588- 590. doi:10.1002/art.1780250516

[38]   Rothschild, B. M., Rothschild, C., & Hill, M. C. (1995a). Origin and transition of varieties of treponemal disease in the New World. Ame- rican Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 20, 185.

[39]   Rothschild, B. M., Hershkovitz, I., & Rothschild, C. (1995b). Origin of yaws in the Pleistocene. Nature, 378, 343-344. doi:10.1038/378343b0

[40]   Sanford, M. K., Bogdan, G., & Kissling, G. E. (1998) Treponematosis in the prehistoric Caribbean, North Carolina coast and Kentucky: Diagnostic considerations. American Journal of Physical Anthropo- logy, Supplement 26, 194.

[41]   Seawright, A. A., & English, P. B. (1967). Hypervitaminosis A and deforming cervical spondylosis of the cat. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 77, 29-43. doi:10.1016/S0021-9975(67)80004-5

[42]   Spirov, G. (1991). Endemic syphilis in Bulgaria. Genitourinary Medi- cine, 67, 428-435.

[43]   Stirland, A. (1995). Evidence for pre-Columbian treponematosis in Medieval Europe. In O. Dutour, G. Palfi, J. Berato & J.-P. Brun (Eds.), L’Origin de la Syphilis en Europe—Avant ou Apres 1493 (pp. 109-115). Toulon: Centre Archeologique du Var.

[44]   Spodick, D. H. (1983). Q-wave infarction versus S-T infarction. Nonspecificity of electrocardiographic criteria for differentiating transmural and nontransrnural lesions. American Journal of Cardiology, 51, 913-915. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(83)80160-X

 
 
Top