The conservation and the balance laws used in the derivation of the ordered rate constitutive theories presented here for the thermoviscoelastic non-classical fluids have been derived and presented by Surana et al.     for solid and fluent continua in Lagrangian as well as Eulerian descriptions. For the benefit of the readers and for the sake of completeness we briefly describe the motivation behind non-classical continuum theory incorporating internal rotation rates as well as a brief description of the development of the theory. In complex flows the velocity gradient tensor varies between a location and its neighboring locations. Polar decomposition of the velocity gradient tensor or its decomposition into symmetric and skew symmetric tensors shows that varying velocity gradient tensor results in varying rotation rates between the neighboring locations. Since these varying rotation rates arise due to varying deformation of the continua, hence are completely defined by the deformation (antisymmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor), thus do not require additional degrees of freedom at a material point. If the internally varying rotation rates are resisted by the deforming fluid, then there must exist corresponding conjugate moments. This physics is all internal to the deforming continua and is present in all flows but is completely neglected in the presently used classical continuum theories for fluent continua. The continuum theory presented in references   for fluent continua considers internal varying rotation rates in addition to the strain rate tensor between the neighboring material points (or locations) and the associated conjugate moments in the derivation of the conservation and the balance laws. This theory has been referred to as “internal polar theory” or non-classical continuum theory with internal rotation rates.
There is much published work on non-classical continuum theories under the titles: micropolar theories, stress couple theories, rotation gradient theories, strain gradient theories with applications to beams, shells, plates, vibrations, etc.  -  . A comprehensive review of these works can be found in references     and others  -  . This is not repeated here for the sake of brevity. In this paper we utilize the conservation and the balance laws presented in references   to derive constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic fluids, both compressible and incompressible. The ordered rate constitutive theories for compressible and incompressible thermoelastic solids, thermoviscoelastic solids with and without memory, thermofluids and thermoviscoelastic fluids within the framework of conservation and balance laws of classical mechanics have been presented by Surana et al.  -  . The ordered rate constitutive theories for non-classical solid and fluent continua in which internal rotations due to Jacobian of deformation and the internal rotation rates due to velocity gradient tensor are considered also have been presented by Surana et al.  -  . The concepts used in these works leading to ordered rate constitutive theories of various orders are utilized in the present work.
The constitutive theories in this paper are derived in a basis independent manner, hence are valid for co- and contra-variant bases as well as for Jaumann rates. Entropy inequality and other conservation and balance laws are used to determine the constitutive variables. Their argument tensors are decided based on the conjugate pairs appearing in the entropy inequality as well as the additional desired physics that is not obvious from the conjugate pairs in the entropy inequality. Argument tensors of the constitutive variables as well as the choice of the constitutive variables are generalized to include convected time derivatives of the stress and the strain tensors up to certain orders giving rise to the ordered rate constitutive theories. The constitutive theories are primarily derived using representation theorem  -  , i.e., theory of generators and invariants. Material coefficients for each constitutive theory are established using Taylor series expansion of the coefficients in a linear combination about a known configuration. It is shown that Maxwell model, Oldroyd-B model and Giesekus constitutive models based on classical mechanics are a subset of the constitutive theories derived here. Furthermore, it is shown that single constitutive theories for stress tensor, moment tensor, and heat vector derived based on integrity based on the non-classical mechanics also degenerates to the Maxwell, Oldroyd-B and Giesekus models derived in classical continuum mechanics. That is only a single constitutive model derived here is sufficient to represent dilute and dense polymer physics for classical as well as non-classical cases.
In the following we give a brief explanation of the notations. This is necessary as some of the notations are new  . If and denote the position coordinates of a material point in the reference and current configurations respectively in a fixed frame (x-frame), then
If and are the components of length and in the reference and current configurations, and if we neglect the infinitesimals of orders two and higher in both configurations, then we obtain,
and using Murnaghan’s notation 
in which the columns of are covariant base vectors , whereas the rows of are contravariant base vectors  . and are Jacobians of deformation tensors. The basis defined by is reciprocal to the basis defined by . The following relations are useful in the paper:
in which stands for material derivative, is the spatial velocity
gradient tensor, and are the velocity components of a material point in the current configuration in the x-frame. Over bar on all dependent quantities refers to their Eulerian descriptions, i.e., they are functions of and t whereas the quantities without over bar are their Lagrangian description, i.e., they are functions of and t. Thus, and are Eulerian and Lagrangian description of a quantity Q in the current configuration.
3. Choices of Stress Tensor, Moment Tensor, and Convected Time Derivatives of the Strain Tensor
Stress, moment, and strain tensors and their convected time derivatives can be considered in contravariant basis, covariant basis, or Jaumann rates. Following reference  for example , can be considered as measures of Cauchy stress and moment tensors in contravariant and covariant basis and corresponding to Jaumann rates. Likewise we can consider , the convected time derivatives of the Almansi, Green’s strain tensor and Jaumann rates. Where,
, symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor.
Let , and define Cauchy stress tensor, Cauchy moment tensor and convected time derivatives of the strain tensor conjugate to the stress tensor in a chosen basis. Conjugate measure to is yet to be decided. We present derivations of the constitutive theories using this notation so that the resulting derivations are basis independent. By replacing with ,
, and , the constitutive theories in contravariant basis, covariant basis, and in Jaumann rates can be obtained. Since in this paper we consider non-classical polymeric fluids, we also need to consider convected time derivatives of the Cauchy stress tensor as well as Cauchy moment tensor. Let and be the convected time derivatives of Cauchy stress and moment tensors up to orders and . Additionally, rotation rates and their gradients naturally appear in the balance laws through thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. As shown subsequently, the heat vector can be chosen to be basis independent if its argument tensors are density, temperature gradient, and temperature.
4. Rotation Rates, Gradients of Rotation Rates and Decompositions
Let be the velocity gradient tensor, then
and are symmetric and antisymmetric tensors
is internal rotation rate tensor containing rotation angle rates about axes in the x-frame. If we define rotation angle rates by
If we represent rotation angle rates as a vector
Alternatively, we could consider
rotation angle rates in (4.3) are positive when clockwise and correspond to half the angles whereas the rotation angle rates (coefficients of ) are positive when considered counterclockwise and correspond to full angles. We note that are purely due to the velocity gradient tensor hence, are present in all deforming fluent continua. We refer to these as internal rotation angle rates. The gradients of in (4.5) can be defined as
In which and are symmetric and antisymmetric components of the gradients of rotation rate tensor and are defined as
5. Conservation and Balance Laws
Consider a tetrahedron of volume V and boundary in the reference configuration whose planes are parallel to the fixed x-frame and whose oblique plane is subjected to average stress and average moment . Upon deformation it occupies volume with boundary surface . The faces (planes) of the deformed tetrahedron are defined by covariant base vectors. These tetrahedron faces are flat but not orthogonal to each other as well as not parallel to the planes of the x-frame. Equilibrium considerations for the deformed tetrahedron yield the conservation and the balance laws keeping in mind that these laws resulting from classical continuum theories may need to be modified to the existence of the new physics associated with internal rotation rates and conjugate Cauchy moment tensor that balances with through Cauchy principle. Conservation of mass, balance of linear momenta, balance of angular momenta, first and second laws of thermodynamics yield the following     in the current configuration.
The Cauchy stress tensor is nonsymmetric and so is the Cauchy moment tensor . Antisymmetric components of are balanced with the gradients of (Equation (5.3)). is density, are body forces per unit mass, is specific internal energy, is heat vector, is Helmholtz free energy density, is entropy density, is temperature gradients tensor, and is temperature.
Balance of Moment of Moments Balance Law
Yang et al.  showed that when the additional physics of internal rotations is accounted for in a deforming volume of solid matter the conservation and the balance laws used in classical continuum mechanics are not sufficient to ensure equilibrium of the deforming matter. Yang et al.  presented equilibrium of the moment of moments as an additional equilibrium law necessary in non-classical continuum mechanics. The derivation originates from geometric consideration and requires static balance of the moment of moments due to Cauchy moment tensor and the moment of moments due to antisymmetric part of the Cauchy stress tensor. This derivation in the strict sense cannot be called a balance law, i.e., we cannot refer to this as “balance of moment of moments balance law” as a balance law must be derived from rate considerations (as rate of linear and angular momenta in the balance laws of linear and angular momenta). Surana et al.   have shown that in case of non-classical continuum mechanics considering internal rotations and rotation rates, rate of change of angular momenta due to rotation rates must balance with the moment of moments and the moment of moments due to antisymmetric Cauchy stress tensor. Since the rate of change of moment of angular momenta due to rotation rates is zero in continuum mechanics (as the material points have no inertia). Thus, the complete balance of moment of moments derivation in   reduces to the same equation as derived by Yang et al.  using static equilibrium considerations. Based on this balance law
must hold. Equation (5.6) implies that , i.e., the Cauchy moment tensor is symmetric. On the other hand in the absence of this balance law, symmetry of the Cauchy moment tensor is not established, hence Cauchy moment tensor will be nonsymmetric. In the derivation of the constitutive theory for we assume to be nonsymmetric implying that the balance of moment of moments is not considered as a balance law. This is the more general case. The constitutive theories when is symmetric are a subset of the more general case in which is not symmetric, keeping in mind that nonsymmetric part of , i.e., absence of this balance law leads to spurious behavior as shown in   .
6. Conjugate Pairs in Entropy Inequality, Constitutive Variables and Their Argument Tensors
From the entropy inequality we note that in each of the two trace terms both tensors are nonsymmetric, thus based on the works of Spencer, Wang and Zhang and others  -  these pairs of tensors in each trace term do not constitute conjugate pairs. That is either of the tensors in each pair cannot be expressed in terms of the other due to lack of existence of integrity or basis for nonsymmetric tensors. We consider the following
Stress tensor, and moment tensor, and rotation rate gradient tensor decompositions yield
in which subscripts s and a stand for symmetric and antisymmetric. Substituting from (6.1)-(6.3) in (5.5) and noting that
We obtain the following from (5.5)
The energy equation can accordingly be written as
We note that in (6.6), in the trace terms either both tensors are symmetric or antisymmetric, hence all three trace terms in (6.6) can be considered as conjugate pairs in the constitutive theories. First, from (6.6) we can easily infer that and are a possible choice of constitutive variables. The argument tensors of these constitutive variables are decided using the conjugate pairs as well as the desired physics these are to represent that perhaps may not be obvious from the entropy inequality.
For compressible matter, density varies during evolution. Based on continuity equation in Lagrangian description, this is defined by changing
Hence or or , hence in Eulerian description
must be an argument tensor of the constitutive variables. Choice of as an argument tensor is straight forward. as a constitutive variable and as its argument tensor is obvious from the conjugate pair in the entropy inequality. Likewise and are constitutive variables and and are their argument tensors is straight forward as well. Similarly, as dependent variable and as its argument tensor is also quite obvious from (6.6). and at this stage must contain totality of all argument tensors based on principle of equipresence some of which may be ruled out later due to some other considerations at a later stage in the derivation. Thus, at this stage we have
These argument tensors need to be modified based on the following remarks.
1) Recall that first convected time derivative of the Green’s strain tensor in covariant basis is , i.e.,
Tensor is a fundamental kinematic tensor in covariant basis based on Green’s strain tensor, a covariant measure.
2) Likewise if we consider convected time derivative of Almansi strain tensor in contravariant basis, then is also the convected time derivative of the Almansi strain tensor in contravariant basis, i.e.,
Tensor is also a fundamental kinematic tensor in contravariant basis.
3) We also know that 
in which is Jaumann rate.
4) Convected time derivatives of Green’s and Almansi strain tensors of orders higher than one (hence Jaumann rates as well) can be derived  . These are all fundamental kinematic tensors as well.
Thus, in (6.9) can be replaced by in which (for basis independence considerations of the derivation) can be a desired choice from (6.13).
5) By examining the Maxwell, Oldroyd-B, and Giesekus constitutive models for polymeric fluids (based on classical mechanics), we note that these contain convected time derivatives of orders one and zero (same as stress tensor) of the stress tensor. In the work presented here we generalize this choice, hence consider convected time derivatives of Cauchy stress tensor up to orders m in co- and contra-variant bases as well as Jaumann rates, i.e., we choose (due to basis independence of the derivation). Thus, now we can update the choice of constitutive variables and their argument tensors in (6.9). We replace with and by . Additionally, become argument tensors of .
6) Parallel to the Cauchy stress tensor, we must also consider , and replace and in (6.9) by and . Additionally, we must also include and as argument tensors
of and .
Based on remarks (1)-(6) we can modify the choice of constitutive variables and their argument tensors in (6.9). Keeping in mind that at this stage and must include totality of all argument tensors.
using in (6.14) we can determine
From continuity equation
Using (6.16) and (6.17) in (6.15) we can write
Substituting from (6.18) in the entropy inequality (6.6) (using Einstein’s notation for the trace terms) and regrouping the terms.
For (6.19) to hold for arbitrary but admissible , , , , , and , the following must hold.
and the resulting entropy inequality (6.6) can be written as
Conditions (6.20)-(6.25) and entropy inequality (6.26) are fundamental relations.
1) From (6.20) we note that is not a function of .
2) From (6.21) we can conclude that is not a function of .
3) Equations (6.22) imply that is not a function of .
4) From (6.23) we note that is not a function of .
5) From (6.24), , hence is deterministic from . Thus, cannot be a constitutive variable.
6) Equations (6.25) imply that is not a function of .
7) Lastly, in the entropy inequality (6.26), the following are admissible
Condition (6.27) must be satisfied by the constitutive theory for . Conditions (6.28) and (6.29) imply that the rate of work due to symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the Cauchy moment tensor must be positive.
8) The argument tensors of (based on (6.20)-(6.25)) are given by (using in place of )
Based on (6.30), the coefficient of in the entropy inequality (6.26) cannot be set to zero because this would imply that is deterministic from which is only a function of and . This is obviously not true based on the argument tensors of in (6.14). Thus, at this stage the entropy inequality (49) must remain in this form.
7. Constitutive Theories
We consider entropy inequality (6.26) and introduce decomposition of into equilibrium stress and deviatoric stress . In which causes only change in volume while introduces pure distortion of the volume of matter  .
can only be a function of and  . Thus, we have the following, noting that cannot be a function of .
all the other constitutive variables and their argument tensors remain the same
as defined by (6.14), except that has been replaced by  . Substituting
(7.1) in the entropy inequality (6.26) and grouping terms.
7.1. Constitutive Theory for : Compressible Matter
Based on (7.2), we can set the coefficient of in the first term in (7.3) to zero giving
is called thermodynamic pressure (defined by equation of state) and can be derived using . If we assume compressive pressure to be positive, then in (7.4) can be replaced by . Equation (7.4) is the constitutive theory for the equilibrium part of the symmetric Cauchy stress tensor.
7.2. Constitutive Theory for : Incompressible Case
For incompressible fluent continua, , hence , thus for this case (7.4) cannot be used to derive constitutive theory for . For
incompressible matter , also
This incompressibility condition must be enforced. Based on (7.5) we can write
In (7.6), is an arbitrary Lagrange multiplier. Adding (7.6) to entropy
inequality (7.6) and setting , we obtain
Setting the coefficient of in the first term to zero, we obtain the following constitutive theory for for the incompressible case.
is called mechanical pressure. If we assume compressive pressure to be positive, then in (7.8) can be replaced by . The entropy inequality now reduces to
The constitutive variables and their argument tensors now are as follows.
7.3. Constitutive Theory for
We consider (7.11) defining the argument tensors of . This constitutive theory has to be a rate theory in time in stress and strain rate tensors in order to incorporate dissipation mechanism as well as memory (rheology). We use representation theorem (or theory of generators and invariants)    -  to derive the constitutive theory for the deviatoric part of the symmetric Cauchy stress tensor. Let be the combined generators of the argument tensors of that are symmetric tensors of rank two and let be the combined invariants of the same argument tensors, then using the representation theorem we can express as a linear combination of and in the current configuration.
To determine the material coefficients in (7.15), we expand each in Taylor series in and about a known configuration , retaining only up to linear terms in and (for simplicity) and then we substitute these in (7.15). After collecting coefficients of those terms that are defined in the current configuration, we obtain the following
in which and are material coefficients defined in a known configuration . This constitutive theory requires material coefficients. The material coefficients defined in (7.18) can be functions of and . This constitutive theory is based on integrity, the only approximation being truncation of the Taylor series expressions of . We consider simplified forms of this theory in later sections.
7.4. Constitutive Theory for
We consider as constitutive variables. Its argument tensors are defined by (7.12). Similar to the derivation of the constitutive theory for the deviatoric part of the symmetric Cauchy stress, here also the constitutive theory should be a rate theory in time in the rates of symmetric moment tensor and symmetric part of the gradient tensor of the rotation rates. This is necessitated in order to incorporate physics of dissipation as well as memory due to the symmetric Cauchy moment tensor, its rates and the symmetric part of the gradient of rotation rate tensor. Let be the combined generators of the argument tensors of in (7.12) that are symmetric tensors of rank two and let be the combined invariants of the same argument tensors, then using the representation theorem we can express as a linear combination of and in the current configuration.
To determine material coefficients in (7.19), we expand each in Taylor series in and about a known configuration , retaining only up to linear terms in and (for simplicity) and then we substitute these in (7.19). After collecting coefficients of those terms that are defined in the current configuration, we obtain the following
In which and are material coefficients defined in the known configuration . Explicit expressions for these can be obtained from (7.18) by replacing subscript and superscript with , hence the details are not repeated for the sake of brevity. This constitutive theory requires material coefficients. This constitutive theory is based on integrity. The only approximation being truncation of the Taylor series expansion of . Simplified forms of this constitutive theory are considered in later sections.
7.5. Constitutive Theory for
Consider and its argument tensors defined by (7.13). is an antisymmetric tensor of rank two and so are its argument tensors except and , these being tensors of rank zero. Let be the combined generators of the argument tensors of that are antisymmetric tensors of rank two and let be the combined invariants of the same argument tensors. Similar to Sections 7.3 and 7.4, in this case also we express as a linear combination of in the current configuration
To determine material coefficients in (7.22), we expand each in Taylor series in and about a known configuration , retaining only up to linear terms (for simplicity) in and and then we substitute these in (7.22). After collecting coefficients of those terms that are defined in the current configuration, we obtain the following
In which and are material coefficients defined in the known configuration . Explicit expressions for these can be obtained from (7.18) by replacing subscript and superscript by . This constitutive theory requires material coefficients. This constitutive theory is also based on integrity and has the same approximation as those in Sections 7.3 and 7.4. Simplified form of this constitutive theory will also be considered in later sections.
7.6. Constitutive Theory for
Recall inequality (50) resulting from the entropy inequality
In (7.25), and are conjugate. The simplest possible constitutive theory for can be derived by assuming that is proportional to which leads to the following  .
This is standard Fourier heat conduction law with temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Alternatively, if we assume (as in (6.9) after replacing by )
then based on the representation theorem, we can begin with (as is the only combined generator of and that is a tensor of rank one) the following in the current configuration
is the only invariant of the argument tensors of and . Expand in Taylor series in and about a known configuration and retaining only up to linear terms (for simplicity) in and , we obtain the following  after collecting coefficients of the terms defined in the current configuration.
The constitutive theory (7.30) is the simplest possible constitutive theory based on representation theorem. and can be functions of and . Clearly the constitutive theory (7.26) is a subset of (7.30). This constitutive theory (7.30) is cubic in .
8. Simplified Constitutive Theories: Non-Classical and Classical Maxwell, Oldroyd-B, and Giesekus Constitutive Models
In polymer science the Maxwell and the Oldroyd-B constitutive models derived using classical continuum mechanics (Surana et al.  and Surana  ) are advocated  for dilute polymeric liquids that are dominantly viscous fluids with some elasticity whereas Giesekus constitutive model based in classical continuum mechanics (Surana et al.  ) is advocated for dense polymeric fluids  in which the fluid behavior is elasticity dominated. The original derivations of these constitutive theories (see  ) date back to the original papers by Maxwell, Oldroyd and Giesekus  . The derivations are explained using kinetic theory of gases, Brownian motion of polymer molecules, dumbbell models etc. Surana et al.   and Surana  showed that these models in fact can be derived using principles of continuum mechanics, entropy inequality, the conditions resulting from the entropy inequality in conjunction with the representation theorem  .
In references    authors derived ordered rate constitutive theories for polymeric fluids using convected time derivatives of the strain tensor up to order n and the convected time derivatives of the Cauchy stress tensor of up to order m based on classical continuum mechanics. They showed that 1) Maxwell model is a simplified linear constitutive model corresponding to n = 1 and m = 1; 2) Oldroyd-B model is a simplified quasilinear constitutive model corresponding to n = 2 and m = 1 that only contains Cauchy stress, its first convected time derivative and the first and second convected time derivatives of the strain tensor; 3) Giesekus model is same as Maxwell model but additionally contains quadratic term of the Cauchy stress tensor, thus this constitutive model is nonlinear. We make some remarks regarding the constitutive theories presented in Section 7 for non-classical compressible polymeric fluids.
1) The ordered rate constitutive theories presented here for non-classical polymeric fluids naturally contains the ordered rate constitutive theories for the classical polymeric fluids as subset. These are easily obtained by removing the internal rotation rate physics that requires and the Cauchy stress tensor to be symmetric due to balance of angular momenta. The resulting constitutive theory is same as in references    for classical polymeric fluids.
2) Since the constitutive theories presented here are based on integrity, all specific simplified forms of the constitutive models are all subset of these. Hence, it should be possible to present a single non-classical constitutive model for dilute as well as dense polymeric fluids which would also contain commonly used current constitutive models (based on classical mechanics) within a single constitutive theory. In order for the non-classical constitutive theories to contain currently used classical constitutive theories we need to choose the following for the ordered rates. . For this choice the constitutive variables and their argument tensors are
Constitutive theories derived using (8.1) when based on integrity will require too many material coefficients for deviatoric part of the symmetric Cauchy stress tensor as well as for each of the moment tensors. Constitutive theory for remains unaffected. We consider the following simplifications
1) Consider the constitutive theories to be linear in and .
2) Neglect the product terms of , and .
3) Neglect all terms (to conform to the currently used constitutive models).
4) Also neglect the first term in each constitutive theory containing influence of initial stress and initial moments.
5) We consider generators , and but neglect quadratic and cubic trace terms in the invariants as well as products of these generators with others.
Based on these assumptions we obtain the following constitutive theories for stress and moment tensors.
8.1. Constitutive Theory for Deviatoric Part of the Symmetric Cauchy Stress Tensor
If we consider
then we obtain the following from (7.17) (using m = 1, n = 2) based on restrictions 1) - 5).
In order to rewrite (8.3) in standard easily recognizable form, we transfer term to the left side of (8.3) and divide the entire equation by and define new coefficients as follows.
then (8.3) can be written as
In which is viscosity, is relaxation time, is retardation time, and are second viscosity and the viscosity associated with , and is mobility factor. This constitutive model holds for compressible polymeric fluids. In case of incompressible fluids, can be used to simplify (8.5).
Maxwell model: Compressible
To obtain Maxwell model from (8.5) we set and . The resulting constitutive theory is given by
This is a linear viscoelastic Maxwell model.
Oldroyd-B model: Compressible
To derive this constitutive model we also use (8.5) with and to obtain a quasilinear viscoelastic model (nonlinearity due to ).
Giesekus model: Compressible
In this constitutive model we use (8.5) and set and to obtain the Giesekus constitutive model.
1) The constitutive models (8.5)-(8.8) are valid in case of non-classical as well as classical continuum theories.
2) The constitutive theory (8.5) is valid for Maxwell model, Oldroyd-B model as well as Giesekus model based on classical continuum theory with appropriate choice of material coefficients. Thus, there is no need for (8.6)-(8.8). When calibrating (8.5), for dilute or dense polymeric fluids the material coefficients that are not applicable for the physics under consideration will automatically assume zero or small values.
3) In case of constitutive theories for non-classical continuum mechanics in addition to (8.5) we also need constitutive theory(ies) for the moment tensor(s).
8.2. Constitutive Theory for
Consider dependent variable and its argument tensors in (8.1). As mentioned earlier, the constitutive theory based on integrity will require too many material coefficients. If we consider
then we can obtain the following from (7.21) (based on assumptions 1) - 5) stated in Section 8).
We transfer term to the left side in (8.10) and divide the entire equation by and define
then, (8.10) can be written as
Maxwell and Oldroyd-B models
Following the derivation of constitutive theory for deviatoric symmetric Cauchy stress tensor, in (8.12) if we set and , then we obtain
Consistent with the derivation of constitutive model for classical continuum theory, we set to obtain the following constitutive model from (8.12).
1) It is rather obvious that (8.13) and (8.14) are a subset of (8.12). When calibrating (8.12), the material coefficients not contributing to the physics will automatically be zero (or small values).
2) Thus, we see that for symmetric Cauchy moment tensor also we need to consider only a single constitutive model (8.12).
8.3. Constitutive Theory for
Consider the constitutive variable and its argument tensors in (8.1). Since and two of its four argument tensors are antisymmetric tensors of rank two, the combined generators of the argument tensors and invariants are quite limited. Thus, for this constitutive theory we consider integrity first before any simplification. Based on (8.1) we have the following combined generators and invariants
This constitutive theory will naturally lead to a large number of material coefficients . The choice of which generators and invariants to retain is not simple as neglecting nonlinear and product terms in this case is quite detrimental. For illustrative purposes we consider a constitutive theory that is linear in and and contains the product of these terms as well, i.e., we consider all three generators but only invariant . In this theory products of the generators and the invariant is not admissible as this would contain a quadratic term in and . Thus we can write (following (8.10), neglecting terms)
transferring to the left side of (8.17) and dividing the whole equation by and defining
The constitutive theory (8.19) is linear in and but contains their product terms.
This following constitutive model, similar to Maxwell model for classical mechanics, is easily deduced from (8.19) by setting .
Oldroyd-B and Giesekus models
Derivation of these models (parallel to those based on classical continuum mechanics) from (8.19) is not clear as this model (8.19) does not have second convected time derivative of the rotation gradient tensor (needed for Oldroyd-B model) and term needed for Giesekus model. Even the constitutive model based on integrity does not contain these terms. We simply leave with (8.19) at this stage.
9. Complete Mathematical Model
In the following we provide complete mathematical model including the constitutive theories for non-classical thermoviscoelastic fluids in simplified forms that contain the constitutive theories based on classical continuum theories as subset. The constitutive theories for classical case are easily obtained by eliminating the moment tensor and the constitutive theories for it and recognizing that for this case the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric. In the following we assume that the balance of moment of moments is not a balance law, hence Cauchy moment tensor is not symmetric.
Conservation and balance laws
Constitutive theories using general constitutive theories (8.5), (8.12), (8.19), and (7.30) applicable to dilute as well as dense polymers
We show that this mathematical model has closure for compressible as well as incompressible non-classical polymeric fluids.
For this case thermodynamic pressure is defined by an equation of state and is also known, hence and are not dependent variables in the mathematical model. Thus we have (number in the brackets is the count of the number of variables): , a total of 26 dependent variables. The number of equations in this mathematical model are: continuity (1), balance of linear momenta (3), balance of angular momenta (3), energy equation (1), constitutive theories for: , a total of 26, hence this mathematical model has closure.
In this case , hence known, but the pressure is not known, hence the number of equations as well as the number of variables for this case also remains 26 but instead of known becomes an unknown dependent variable.
1) When balance of moment of moments is considered as a balance law    , then Cauchy moment tensor becomes symmetric, i.e., and . This eliminates , three as dependent variables in the mathematical model as well as three constitutive equations for . Thus, for this case we have 23 dependent variables and 23 equations.
2) The mathematical model uses basis independent measures, i.e., . This mathematical model can easily be made basis dependent by choosing these measures in contravariant basis or covariant basis or using Jaumann measure keeping in mind that if these measures are contravariant then the corresponding conjugate quantities are covariant or vice-versa.
3) These polymeric fluids have elasticity, dissipation mechanism, as well as memory. Elasticity is due to stretching of long chain polymer molecules, dissipation is due to both short chain molecules of solvent as well as long chain molecules of polymer and their interactions and memory is due to relaxation phenomenon inherent in these fluids because of stretched polymer molecules resuming their unstressed (or relaxed state).
4) Dissipation and memory mechanism in these non-classical polymeric fluids are due to as well as (when balance of moment of moments is not used as a balance law). These are fully accounted for in the constitutive theories based on integrity as well as their simplified general forms ((9.8), (9.9), and (9.10)) and their specific forms that are only valid for Maxwell, Oldroyd-B, and Giesekus constitutive models respectively.
10. Retardation and Memory Moduli
Using (9.8)-(9.10) and discarding and terms on the right hand sides and defining and
We can write (9.8)-(9.10) as follows
Equations (10.4)-(10.6) are first order differential equations in time in and , hence can be integrated using the following: The differential equation
has the solution
where C is a constant of integration. We consider (10.4) and rewrite
Hence using (10.7) and (10.8) we can write
Based on reference  choice of is arbitrary. Some other value could result in different value of . If we prescribe that the stress in the fluid is finite at , we must choose to be zero. We must also check the first term in (10.10), since both numerator and denominator go to zero as t goes to . Using L’Hôpital’s rule we get:
Thus, if is finite, the stress is finite at , hence (10.10) reduces to
The quantity in the bracket in the integrand in (10.12) is called “retardation modulus” for . When only contains term, we can obtain relaxation modulus for from (10.12). This is straight forward. We omit this here as it requires approximating . Retardation modulus is as good a measure of rheology as relaxation modulus. Using similar approach we can also derive the following from (10.5) and (10.6), first by rewriting them by dividing by and respectively.
and then following the derivation for
The terms in the brackets in (10.15) and (10.16) are called retardation modulus for and , respectively.
1) We observe that the non-classical polymeric fluids have relaxation mechanism due to as well as and when balance of moments of moments is not considered as a balance law.
2) When the balance of moments of moments is used as a balance law is symmetric, hence and . Thus in this case the relaxation mechanism is only due to and .
11. Summary and Conclusions
This paper considers conservation and balance laws for non-classical continuum theory for fluent continua to present derivations of the constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic fluids, both compressible and incompressible. The non-classical continuum theory and the corresponding constitutive theories incorporate symmetric as well as antisymmetric parts of the velocity gradient tensor. The rotation rates defined by the antisymmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor (referred to as internal rotation rates) act about the axes of a triad located at each material point (or a location). The axes of the triad are parallel to the axes of the fixed x-frame. The constitutive variables are determined from the entropy inequality as well as other conservation and balance laws. The argument tensors of the constitutive variables are decided using conjugate pairs in the entropy inequality as well as by considering other desired physics that is not obvious from the entropy inequality. The constitutive theories are derived using representation theorem. All constitutive theories are based on integrity. Simplified linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear forms of the constitutive theories are presented and compared with parallel constitutive theories for such fluent continua in classical continuum theories. In the following we present a summary of the significant aspects of the work presented in this paper.
1) The constitutive theories for stress and moment tensors are ordered rate constitutive theories up to any desired orders. That is, the constitutive theories utilize convected time derivatives of the constitutive variables (up to any desired orders) as well as convected time derivatives of their argument tensors (also up to any desired orders).
2) All constitutive theories are based on integrity, hence utilize complete basis. The only assumption is in the Taylor series expansion of the coefficients in the linear combination (truncated after linear terms) about a known configuration. These theories provide more comprehensive description of the constitution of the deforming matter.
3) The derivations of the constitutive theories are basis independent due to basis independent choice of the constitutive variables as well as their argument tensors. By appropriate choices of the bases for the constitutive variables and their argument tensors, the constitutive theories can be easily made basis specific. For example, if and are chosen as contravariant measures ( and ), then their conjugates must be in covariant basis and vice-versa.
4) In the non-classical thermoviscoelastic fluids considered in this paper, the mechanisms of energy storage, dissipation of mechanical work, and rheology are due to and , whereas in the case of classical thermoviscoelastic fluids, these mechanisms are only due to .
5) It has been shown by Yang et al.  and Surana et al.   that the balance of moment of moments is a necessary balance law in non-classical continuum theories to ensure that the deforming volume of matter is in equilibrium. In the presence of this balance law, the Cauchy moment tensor becomes symmetric. In this paper we have presented derivations of the constitutive theories when the balance of moment of moments is not a balance law. This is a more general case. When the balance of moment of moments is a balance law, the Cauchy moment tensor becomes symmetric, i.e., and .
6) Retardation moduli are derived for and . It can be shown that with some assumptions relaxation moduli can be derived from these. When comparing with classical continuum theories for polymers, we find additional mechanisms of dissipation and rheology in the non-classical thermoviscoelastic fluids.
7) As shown in this paper, the constitutive theories based on integrity are almost always nonlinear in their argument tensors. Their linearizations are perfectly valid if limited physics is of interest, however the conclusions that may be drawn from the superposition of linear constitutive theories are obviously invalid for the constitutive theories based on integrity. An example would be linear constitutive theories for and , suggesting a constitutive theory for , a non-symmetric tensor in terms of non-symmetric argument tensors is obviously invalid.
8) Simplified form of the rate constitutive theories are derived to show that currently used Maxwell, Oldroyd-B, and Giesekus constitutive theories in classical continuum mechanics are in fact a subset of the more general non-classical theories presented in this paper.
In conclusion the work presented in this paper utilizes a consistent thermodynamic framework for non-classical fluent continua and presents derivations of constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic fluids with memory, compressible and incompressible, by incorporating internal rotation rates due to the velocity gradient tensor at a material point. The paper contains thermodynamically consistent derivations of constitutive theories in which all possible mechanisms of energy storage, dissipation, and rheology are considered. Memory (or rheology) mechanism is incorporated by considering rate constitutive theories in terms of the rates of constitutive variables.
The first and third authors are grateful for the support provided by their endowed professorships during the course of this research. The second author is grateful for the financial support provided by the department of mechanical engineering of the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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