Back
 AS  Vol.9 No.8 , August 2018
Biology and Physiology of Colletotrichum acutatum Strains Causing Strawberry’s Anthracnose
Abstract: Seven Colletotrichum acutatum strains isolated from strawberries were cultivated on various culture media and tested in vitro and in vivo on Fragaria x ananassa for anthracnose symptoms. PDA caused an optimum growth of all isolates, MEA, ML and Strawberry allowed a good but not optimal growth. Czapeck, Sabouraud and the organic medium from potato gave the lowest growth rate of all isolates. PDA allowed a good sporulation of isolates follow-up by strawberry, MEA; in contrast, ML, Czapeck and Sabouraud gave a low sporulation. The fungal development is maximal at 25&degC and 27&degC for all the isolates studied. No growth was observed at 5&degC and 37&degC. The studied strains developed at all pH values. They didn’t develop at 0.6, 0.65 and 0.7 aw but mycelial growth was perfect at 1 and 0.95 aw. The in vitro test of the pathogenicity caused by C. acutatum strains on strawberry’s leaves showed an increasing percentage of infection with time and different infection rates among C. acutatum strains, strain Ca6 having a pathogenic power very high compared to the other isolates. After in vivo inoculation and incubation of the seedlings, all isolates caused severe symptoms related to anthracnose on leaflets and petioles of the studied strawberry plants.
Cite this paper: Es-Soufi, R. , El Kbiach, M. , Errabii, T. , Saidi, R. , Badoc, A. , Chaveriat, L. , Martin, P. and Lamarti, A. (2018) Biology and Physiology of Colletotrichum acutatum Strains Causing Strawberry’s Anthracnose. Agricultural Sciences, 9, 974-990. doi: 10.4236/as.2018.98068.
References

[1]   Mouden, N., Benkirane, R., Ouazzani Touhami, A. and Douira, A. (2013) Mycoflore de quelques variétés du fraisier (Fragaria ananassa L.), cultivées dans la région du Gharb et le Loukkos (Maroc). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 61, 4490-4514.
https://doi.org/10.4314/jab.v61i0.85597

[2]   Buddie, A.G., Martínez-Culebras, P., Bridge, P.D., García, M.D., Querol, A., Cannon, P.F. and Monte, E. (1999) Molecular Characterization of Colletotrichum Strains Derived from Strawberry. Mycological Research, 103, 385-394.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0953756298007254

[3]   Debode, J., Van Hemelrijck, W., Baeyen, S., Creemers, P., Heungens, K. and Maes, M. (2009) Quantitative Detection and Monitoring of Colletotrichum acutatum in Strawberry Leaves Using Real-Time PCR. Plant Pathology, 58, 504-514.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01987.x

[4]   Gunnell, P.S. and Gubler, W.D. (1992) Taxonomy and Morphology of Colletotrichum Species Pathogenic to Strawberry. Mycologia, 84, 157-165.
https://doi.org/10.2307/3760246

[5]   Denoyes-Rothan, B., Guérin, G., Délye, C., Smith, B., Minz, D., Maymon, M. and Freeman, S. (2003) Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variability among Isolates of Colletotrichum Species from Strawberry. Phytopathology, 93, 219-228.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.2.219

[6]   MacKenzie, S.J., Peres, N.A., Barquero, M.P., Arauz, L.F. and Timmer, L.W. (2009) Host Range and Genetic Relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum Isolates from Fruit Crops and Leatherleaf Fern in Florida. Phytopathology, 99, 620-631.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-99-5-0620

[7]   Sreenivasaprasad, S. and Talhinhas, P. (2005) Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity in Colletotrichum acutatum, a Cosmopolitan Pathogen Causing Anthracnose on a Wide Range of Hosts. Molecular Plant Pathology, 6, 361-378.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2005.00291.x

[8]   Garrido, C., Carbú, M., Fernández-Acero, F.J., Vallejo, I. and Cantora, J.M. (2009) Phylogenetic Relationships and Genome Organization of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose in Strawberry. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125, 397-441.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-009-9489-0

[9]   Freeman, S. and Katan, T. (1997) Identification of Colletotrichum Species Responsible for Anthracnose and Root Necrosis of Strawberry in Israel. Phytopathology, 87, 516-521.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1997.87.5.516

[10]   Howard, C.M., Maas, J.L., Chandler, C.K. and Albregts, E.E. (1992) Anthracnose of Strawberry Caused by the Colletotrichum Complex in Florida. Plant Disease, 76, 976-981.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-76-0976

[11]   Smith, B.J. and Black, L.L. (1990) Morphological, Cultural, and Pathogenic Variation among Colletotrichum Species Isolated from Strawberry. Plant Disease, 74, 69-76.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-74-0069

[12]   Wilson, L.L., Madden, L.V. and Ellis, M.A. (1990) Influence of Temperature and Wetness Duration on Infection of Immature and Mature Strawberry Fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum. Phytopathology, 80, 111-116.
https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-80-111

[13]   Talhinhas, P., Sreenivasaprasad, S., Neves-Martins, J. and Oliveira, H. (2002) Genetic and Morphological Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose of Lupins. Phytopathology, 92, 986-996.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.9.986

[14]   Hmouni, A., Oihabi, L., Badoc, A. and Douira, A. (2003) Etude de la résistance de Botrytis cinerea aux benzimidazoles, dicarboximides et dithiocarbamates dans les cultures abritées de tomate de la région du Gharb (Maroc). Bulletin de la Société de Pharmacie de Bordeaux, 142, 79-100.

[15]   Es-Soufi, R., El Bouzdoudi, B., Bouras, M., El Kbiach, M.L., Badoc, A. and Lamarti, A. (2017) Assessment of the Effect of Environmental Factors on the Antagonism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Trichoderma harzianum to Colletotrichum acutatum. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 729-742.
https://doi.org/10.4236/aim.2017.711058

[16]   Hamdache, A., Ezziyyani, M., Badoc, A. and Lamarti, A. (2012) Effect of pH, Temperature and Water Activity on the Inhibition of Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Isolates. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11, 2210-2217.

[17]   Peres, N.A., Timmer, L.W., Adaskaveg, J.E. and Correll, J.C. (2005) Lifestyles of Colletotrichum acutatum. Plant Disease, 89, 784-796.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-89-0784

[18]   Tanaka, M.A.S. and Passos, F.A. (2002) Caracterizaçãopatogênica de Colletotrichum acutatum e C. fragariaeassociados à antracnose do morangueiro. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27, 484-488.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-41582002000500008

[19]   McInnes, T.B., Black, L.L. and Gatti, J.M. (1992) Disease-Free Plants for Management of Strawberry Anthracnose Crown Rot. Plant Disease, 76, 260-264.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-76-0260

[20]   Freeman, S., Horowitz, S. and Sharon, A. (2001) Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry and Other Plants. Phytopathology, 91, 986-992.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.10.986

[21]   Hyde, K.D., Cai, L., Cannon, P.F., Crouch, J.A., Crous, P.W., Damm, U., Goodwin, P.H., Chen, H., Johnston, P.R., Jones, E.B.G., Liu, Z.Y., McKenzie, E.H.C., Moriwaki, J., Noireung, P., Pennycook, S.R., Pfenning, L.H., Prihastuti, H., Sato, T., Shivas, R.G., Tan, Y.P., Taylor, P.W.J., Weir, B.S., Yang, Y.L. and Zhang, J.Z. (2009) Colletotrichum—Names in Current Use. Fungal Diversity, 39, 147-182.

[22]   Adaskaveg, J.E. and Hartin, R.J. (1997) Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Isolates Causing Anthracnose of Almond and Peach in California. Phytopathology, 87, 979-987.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1997.87.9.979

[23]   Peres, N.A.R., Kurame, E.E., Dias, M.S.C. and De Souza, N.L. (2002) Identification and Characterization of Colletotrichum spp. Affecting Fruit after Harvest in Brazil. Journal of Phytopathology, 150, 128-134.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00732.x

[24]   Schiller, M., Lübeck, M., Sundelin, T., Campos Meléndez, L.F., Danielsen, S., Funck Jensen, D. and Madriz Ordeñana, K. (2006) Two Subpopulations of Colletotrichum acutatum Are Responsible for Anthracnose in Strawberry and Leather Leaf Fern in Costa Rica. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 116, 107-118.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-006-9045-0

[25]   Xie, L., Zhang, J.Z., Wan, Y. and Hu, D.W. (2010) Identification of Colletotrichum spp. Isolated from Strawberry in Zhejiang Province and Shanghai City, China. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology), 11, 61-70.

[26]   Howard, C.M. and Albregts, E.E. (1983) Black Leaf Spot Phase of Strawberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides (=C. fragariae). Plant Disease, 67, 1144-1146.
https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-67-1144

[27]   Miles, T.D., Gillett, J.M., Jarosz, A.M. and Schilder, A.M.C. (2013) The Effect of Environmental Factors on Infection of Blueberry Fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum. Plant Pathology, 62, 1238-1247.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12061

[28]   Grahovac, M., Inđić, D., Vuković, S., Hrustć, J., Gvozdenac, S., Mihajlović, M. and Tanović, B. (2012) Morphological and Ecological Features as Differentiation Criteria for Colletotrichum Species. Žemdirbystė-Agriculture, 99, 189-195.

[29]   Fernando, T.H.P.S., Jayasinghe, C.K. and Wijesundera, R.L.C. (2000) Factors Affecting Spore Production, Germination and Viability of Colletotrichum acutatum Isolates from Hevea brasiliensis. Mycological Research, 104, 681-685.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0953756200002483

[30]   Agostini, J.P. and Timmer, L.W. (1994) Population Dynamics and Survival of Strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Citrus in Florida. Phytopathology, 84, 420-425.
https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-84-420

[31]   Kenny, M.K., Galea, V.J. and Price, T.V. (2012) Germination and Growth of Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolates from Coffee in Papua New Guinea and Their Pathogenicity to Coffee Berries. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41, 519-528.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-012-0117-7

[32]   Varzea, V.M.P., Rodrigues, C.J. and Lewis, B.G. (2002) Distinguishing Characteristics and Vegetative Compatibility of Colletotrichum kahawae in Comparison with Other Related Species from Coffee. Plant Pathology, 51, 202-207.

[33]   Waller, J.M., Bridge, P.D., Black, R. and Hakiza, G. (1993) Characterization of Coffee Berry Disease Pathogen, Colletotrichum kahawae sp. nov. Mycological Research, 97, 989-994.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80867-8

[34]   De Costa, D.M. and Chandima, A.A.G. (2014) Effect of Exogenous pH on Development and Growth of Colletotrichum musae and Development of Anthracnose in Different Banana Cultivars in Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 42, 229-240.
https://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v42i3.7396

 
 
Top