FNS  Vol.9 No.8 , August 2018
Effect of Carrot and Pumpkin Pulps Adding on Chemical, Rheological, Nutritional and Organoleptic Properties of Ice Cream
Abstract: Ice cream manufactured using a substantial amount of pumpkin pulp (PP) and carrot pulp (CP) has a high organoleptic acceptability. PP and CP were added to typical control ice cream (TC) up to 20%. Through adding PP and CP, natural flavor, unique color, and health-promoting constituents were presented. The resultant ice cream was subjected to chemical, rheological, nutritional, and organoleptic properties investigation. Results revealed that dry matter especially SNF in both PPand CP-ice creams were increased significantly. Accordingly, ash, fiber, and available carbohydrates contents were significantly increased whereas opposite result was recorded for crude protein as a result of PP and CP substitution. The ice cream containing high PP and CP contents had higher melting resistance and lower overrun %. Health beneficial phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids (TF), flavonols (TFL), and vit. C were commonly detected in PP and CP-ice creams, reflecting the attributes of PP and CP ingredients. PP and CP-ice cream had the valuable content of TPC, vit. C and antioxidant capacity. However, only ice cream made with 15% of PP and CP was highly accepted than others. Therefore, it is possible to use a substantial amount from PP and CP to produce ice cream up to 15% with retained much of natural color, unique vit. C, TPC, carotenoids, TF, TFL contents as well as valuable antioxidant capacity. Health beneficial compounds and organoleptic attributes of prepared ice cream formulas were encouragingly the commercial possibility of using PP and CP for scaling up further.
Cite this paper: Hassan, M. , Barakat, H. (2018) Effect of Carrot and Pumpkin Pulps Adding on Chemical, Rheological, Nutritional and Organoleptic Properties of Ice Cream. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 9, 969-982. doi: 10.4236/fns.2018.98071.

[1]   Villava, F.J., Cravero Bruneri, A.P., Vinderola, G., Goncalvez De Oliveira, E., PAZ, N.F. and Ramon, A.N. (2017) Formulation of a Peach Ice Cream as Potential Symbiotic Food. Food Science and Technology, 37, 456-461.

[2]   Thorning, T.K., Bertram, H.C., Bonjour, J.-P., De Groot, L., Dupont, D., Feeney, E., Ipsen, R., Lecerf, J.M., Mackie, A. and McKinley, M.C. (2017) Whole Dairy Matrix or Single Nutrients in Assessment of Health Effects: Current Evidence and Knowledge Gaps. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105, 1033-1045.

[3]   Astrup, A. (2014) Yogurt and Dairy Product Consumption to Prevent Cardiometabolic Diseases: Epidemiologic and Experimental Studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99, 1235S-1242S.

[4]   Elwood, P.C., Pickering, J.E., Givens, D.I. and Gallacher, J.E. (2010) The Consumption of Milk and Dairy Foods and the Incidence of Vascular Disease and Diabetes: An Overview of the Evidence. Lipids, 45, 925-939.

[5]   Sun-Waterhouse, D. (2011) The Development of Fruit-Based Functional Foods Targeting the Health and Wellness Market: A Review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46, 899-920.

[6]   Van Kleef, E., Van Trijp, H.C., Luning, P. and Jongen, W.M. (2002) Consumer-Oriented Functional Food Development: How Well Do Functional Disciplines Reflect the “Voice of the Consumer”? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 13, 93-101.

[7]   Cruz, A.G., Antunes, A.E., Sousa, A.L.O., Faria, J.A. and Saad, S.M. (2009) Ice-Cream as a Probiotic Food Carrier. Food Research International, 42, 1233-1239.

[8]   Smith, J.S. and Hui, Y.H. (2008) Food Processing: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[9]   Arbuckle, W.S. (2013) Ice Cream. Springer, New York.

[10]   Soukoulis, C., Lebesi, D. and Tzia, C. (2009) Enrichment of Ice Cream with Dietary Fibre: Effects on Rheological Properties, Ice Crystallisation and Glass Transition Phenomena. Food Chemistry, 115, 665-671.

[11]   Tiwari, A., Sharma, H.K., Kumar, N. and Kaur, M. (2015) The Effect of Inulin as a Fat Replacer on the Quality of Low-Fat Ice Cream. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 68, 374-380.

[12]   Denzil, D. (2014) Development of Technology for Use Carrot as a Function Ingredient in Ice Cream, in Department of Dairy Technology. Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat.

[13]   da Silva Dias, J.C. (2014) Nutritional and Health Benefits of Carrots and Their Seed Extracts. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2147-2156.

[14]   Brandt, K., Christensen, L.P., Hansen-Moller, J., Hansen, S.L., Haraldsdottir, J., Jespersen, L., Purup, S., Kharazmi, A., Barkholt, V. and Frokiær, H. (2004) Health Promoting Compounds in Vegetables and Fruits: A Systematic Approach for Identifying Plant Components with Impact on Human Health. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15, 384-393.

[15]   Kwon, Y., Apostolidis, E., Kim, Y. and Shetty, K. (2007) Health Benefits of Traditional Corn, Beans, and Pumpkin: In Vitro Studies for Hyperglycemia and Hypertension Management. Journal of Medicinal Food, 10, 266-275.

[16]   Murkovic, M., Mülleder, U. and Neunteufl, H. (2002) Carotenoid Content in Different Varieties of Pumpkins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 15, 633-638.

[17]   Singh, B., Panesar, P. and Nanda, V. (2006) Utilization of Carrot Pomace for the Preparation of a Value Added Product. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 1, 22-27.

[18]   Pérez-Jiménez, J. and Saura-Calixto, F. (2006) Effect of Solvent and Certain Food Constituents on Different Antioxidant Capacity Assays. Food Research International, 39, 791-800.

[19]   Rohn, S., Rawel, H.M. and Kroll, J. (2004) Antioxidant Activity of Protein-Bound Quercetin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 4725-4729.

[20]   A.O.A.C. (2000) Official Methods of Analysis of the Aoac. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

[21]   Schmidt, K.A. (2004) Dairy: Ice Cream. In: Smith, J.S. and Hui, Y.H., Eds., Food Processing: Principles and Applications, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 287-296.

[22]   Muse, M. and Hartel, R.W. (2004) Ice Cream Structural Elements That Affect Melting Rate and Hardness. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 1-10.

[23]   Bettaieb, I., Bourgou, S., Wannes, W.A., Hamrouni, I., Limam, F. and Marzouk, B. (2010) Essential Oils, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 10410-10418.

[24]   Mohdaly, A.A.A., Hassanien, M.F.R., Mahmoud, A., Sarhan, M.A. and Smetanska, I. (2012) Phenolics Extracted from Potato, Sugar Beet, and Sesame Processing by-Products. International Journal of Food Properties, 16, 1148-1168.

[25]   Kumaran, A. and Karunakaran, R.J. (2007) In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of Five Phyllanthus Species from India. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 40, 344-352.

[26]   Lu, J., Zhao, H., Chen, J., Fan, W., Dong, J., Kong, W., Sun, J., Cao, Y. and Cai, G. (2007) Evolution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity during Malting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 10994-11001.

[27]   Steel, R., Torrie, J. and Dickey, D. (1997) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

[28]   Matter, A.A., Mahmoud, E.A.M. and Zidan, N.S. (2016) Fruit Flavored Yoghurt: Chemical, Functional and Rheological Properties. International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research, 2, 57-66.

[29]   Sun-Waterhouse, D., Edmonds, L., Wadhwa, S. and Wibisono, R. (2013) Producing Ice Cream Using a Substantial Amount of Juice from Kiwifruit with Green, Gold or Red Flesh. Food Research International, 50, 647-656.

[30]   Abd El-Rahman, A., Madkor, S., Ibrahim, F. and Kilara, A. (1997) Physical Characteristics of Frozen Desserts Made with Cream, Anhydrous Milk Fat, or Milk Fat Fractions. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 1926-1935.

[31]   Fagan, C.C., O’Donnell, C.P., Cullen, P.J. and Brennan, C.S. (2006) The Effect of Dietary Fibre Inclusion on Milk Coagulation Kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering, 77, 261-268.

[32]   Moeenfard, M. and Mazaheri Tehrani, M. (2008) Effect of Some Stabilizers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Type Frozen Yogurt. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environment Science, 4, 584-589.

[33]   Nguyen, L. and Hwang, E.S. (2016) Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia Melanocarpa) Juice. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 21, 330-337.

[34]   Fayed, A.E. (2015) Review Article: Health Benefits of Some Physiologically Active Ingredients and Their Suitability as Yoghurt Fortifiers. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52, 2512-2521.

[35]   Yu, M.S., Kim, J.M., Lee, C.H., Son, Y.J. and Kim, S.K. (2014) Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper. Korean Journal of Food Science and Animal Resource, 34, 408-414.

[36]   Arts, M.J., Haenen, G.R., Wilms, L.C., Beetstra, S.A., Heijnen, C.G., Voss, H.-P. and Bast, A. (2002) Interactions between Flavonoids and Proteins: Effect on the Total Antioxidant Capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 1184-1187.

[37]   Rababah, T.M., Ereifej, K.I. and Howard, L. (2005) Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Dehydration on Concentrations of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Color in Fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4444-4447.

[38]   Barakat, H. and Hassan, M.F. (2017) Chemical, Nutritional, Rheological, and Organoleptical Characterizations of Stirred Pumpkin-Yoghurt. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 8, 746-759.