Back
 AS  Vol.9 No.8 , August 2018
Effects of Reduced in Utero and Post-Weaning Nutrition on Glucose Clearance Measures and Serum Metabolites
Abstract: Lowering production costs while maintaining an optimal level of production is important to producers in extensive environments. Efforts that strive to match the environment to the nutritional requirements of the grazing animal will substantially improve economic returns to the producer. Therefore, a 3-yr study was implemented that evaluated glucose clearance and serum metabolites in primiparous beef heifers (n = 48; 16/yr) from two different feeding regimes. Serum metabolites and glucose clearance measures were analyzed by fitting a repeated measure mixed model using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC). Heifers dams received adequate 1.8 (ADEQ) or marginal 1.2 (MARG) kg/d winter supplementation for approximately 80 d prior to parturition and their heifer calves were then randomly assigned to heifer development treatments that provided ad-libitum (AL) or 80% of ad-libitum (LAL) feed post weaning. Heifers that received the AL treatment during the developmental period were then assigned the 1.8 kg/d winter supplementation for life, whereas heifers that received the LAL treatment during development were assigned the 1.2 kg/d winter supplementation for life. Peak glucose concentrations in response to a bolus dose of glucose changed in magnitude between ADEQ and MARG in utero treatments and decreased further removed from parturition (P = 0.05). However, these changes did not manifest along with other glucose clearance measures (P > 0.17) indicating that regardless of in utero treatment or heifer development treatment the reduction in feed input did not greatly influence glucose clearance measures or baseline serum metabolites throughout postpartum, first parity period.
Cite this paper: Waterman, R. , Petersen, M. , Geary, T. and Vermeire, L. (2018) Effects of Reduced in Utero and Post-Weaning Nutrition on Glucose Clearance Measures and Serum Metabolites. Agricultural Sciences, 9, 947-957. doi: 10.4236/as.2018.98066.
References

[1]   Freetly, H.C., Ferrell, C.L. and Jenkins, T.G. (2001) Production Performance of Beef Cows Raised on Three Different Nutritionally Controlled Heifer Development Programs. Journal of Animal Science, 79, 819-826.
https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.794819x

[2]   Lynch, J.M., et al. (1997) Influence of Timing of Gain on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Beef Replacement Heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 1715-1722.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7571715x

[3]   Clanton, D.C., Jones, L.E. and England. M.E. (1983) Effect of Rate and Time of Gain after Weaning on the Development of Replacement Beef Heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 56, 280-285.
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.562280x

[4]   Yambayamba, E.S., Price, M.A. and Foxcroft. G.R. (1996) Hormonal Status, Metabolic Changes, and Resting Metabolic Rate in Beef Heifers Undergoing Compensatory Growth. Journal of Animal Science, 74, 57-69.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74157x

[5]   Waterman, R.C., et al. (2017) Effects of Reduced in Utero and Post-Weaning Nutrition on Milk Yield and Composition in Primiparous Beef Cows. Animal, 11, 84-90.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116001257

[6]   Küchler, A.W. (1964) Potential Natural Vegetation of the Coterminous United States. American Geographical Society, New York, NY.

[7]   Grings, E.E., et al. (2005) Calving System and Weaning Age Effects on Cow and Preweaning Calf Performance in the Northern Great Plains. Journal of Animal Science, 83, 2671-2683.
https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83112671x

[8]   Newman, S., et al. (1993) Fixed Effects in the Formation of a Composite Line of Beef Cattle: I. Experimental Design and Reproductive Performance. Journal of Animal Science, 71, 2026-2032.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7182026x

[9]   Newman, S., et al. (1993) Fixed Effects in the Formation of a Composite Line of Beef Cattle: II. Pre- and Postweaning Growth and Carcass Composition. Journal of Animal Science, 71, 2033-2039.
https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7182033x

[10]   Roberts, A.J., et al. (2010) Level of Maternal Winter Supplement and Feed Restriction during Postweaning Developmnet Influences Circulating Concentrations of IGF-I in Heifers during the Peripartum and Rebreeding Period. Proceeding—American Society of Animal Science, Laramie, 24-26 June 2008, 194-196.

[11]   Roberts, A.J., Geary, T.W., Grings. E.E., Waterman. R.C. and MacNeil, M.D. (2009) Reproductive Performance of Heifers Offered ad Libitum or Restricted Access to Feed for a 140-d Period after Weaning. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 3043-3052.
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1476

[12]   Roberts, A.J., Paisley, S.I., Geary, T.W., Grings, E.E., Waterman, R.C. and MacNeil, M.D. (2007) Effects of Restricted Feeding of Beef Heifers during the Postweaning Period on Growth, Efficiency, and Ultrasound Carcass Characteristics. Journal of Animal Science, 85, 2740-2745.
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0141

[13]   Waterman, R.C., et al. (2011) Effect of Reduced Heifer Nutrition during in Utero and Post Weaning Development on Glucose and Acetate Kinetics. British Journal of Nutrition, 106, 1702-1712.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002224

[14]   Byrne, H.A., Tieszen, K.L., Hollis, S., Dornan, T.L. and New, J.P. (2000) Evaluation of an Electrochemical Sensor for Measuring Blood Ketones. Diabetes Care, 23, 500-503.
https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.4.500

[15]   Kaneko, J.J. (1989) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 4th Edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

[16]   Regnault, T.R., et al. (2004) Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Response in Pregnant Sheep Following Acute Suppression of Plasma Non-Esterified Fatty Acid Concentrations. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2, 64-73.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-2-64

[17]   SAS Institute (2004) SAS/Stat 9.1 User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

[18]   Zammit, V. (1990) Ketogenesis in the Liver of Ruminants—Adaptations to a Challenge. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 115, 155-162.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600075080

 
 
Top