Back
 OJEpi  Vol.8 No.3 , August 2018
Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Factors among Adults in Benin in 2015: Results of the National Survey of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors
Abstract: Introduction: Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke are one of the most preventable causes of death and disability worldwide. The risk is even higher among daily tobacco consumers. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that surveillance of major risk factors for non- communicable diseases (NCDs), such as smoking, be imperative to predicting the future burden of NCDs, identifying adequate interventions to decrease future burden and monitor trends. In 2015, a survey on NCD risk factors was conducted in Benin to estimate the prevalence of major NCD risk factors. We analyzed the data from this survey to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with daily tobacco consumption in Benin. Methods: A nationwide representative sample of the population was constituted in the 12 departments of Benin. The WHO STEPS wise tool was used to collect data on behavioral and demographic characteristics, including daily tobacco consumption. Tobacco consumption was subdivided into three categories: The daily consumption of tobacco, the daily consumption of smoked tobacco and non-smoked tobacco. Multivariate analysis through the weighted logistic regression was used to identify potential factors associated with daily consumption of tobacco. Results: Over the 5.126 surveyed subjects, 7.49% were daily tobacco consumers, with 3.85% being daily users of smoked tobacco and 4.36% being daily consumers of non-smoked tobacco. Men were more likely to be daily consumers of tobacco compared to women (OR = 7.42; 95%CI = [4.98; 11.06]). Compared to respondents aged 18 to 24, those aged 45 to 54 were five times more likely to consume tobacco (OR = 5.58; 95%IC = [2.71; 11.47]). Respondents residing in the departments of Atacora, Couffo and Borgou were respectively 4.28 times, 3.93 times and 2.63 times more likely to consume tobacco compared to those residing in the department of Alibori. Respondents with no education were more likely to consume tobacco daily compared to respondents who had finished high school or were in university (OR = 3.73; 95%CI = [1.36; 10.23]. Respondents who were overweight were less likely to be daily users of tobacco compared to people with normal weight status (OR = 0.57; 95%CI = [0.34; 0.96]). Conclusion: There is a relatively high prevalence of smoking in Benin, where one out of 8 people, consumes tobacco products daily. Being elderly, male, having no formal education, residing in Atacora, Borgou or Couffo were significantly associated with daily smoking. Prevention actions should thus target those sub-groups of the population.
Cite this paper: Houinato, A. , Johnson, R. , Kpozehouen, A. , Guedou, F. , Houssou, C. and Houinato, D. (2018) Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Factors among Adults in Benin in 2015: Results of the National Survey of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 8, 130-144. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2018.83011.
References

[1]   Bhat, V.M., Cole, J.W., Sorkin, J.D., Wozniak, M.A., Malarcher, A.M., Giles, W.H., et al. (2008) Dose-Response Relationship between Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Women. Stroke, 39, 2439-2443.
https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.510073

[2]   Craig, W.Y., Palomaki, G.E. and Haddow, J.E. (1989) Cigarette Smoking and Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations: An Analysis of Published Data. BMJ, 298, 784-788.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6676.784

[3]   Castellsague, X., Munoz, N., Destefani, E., Victora, C.G., Castelletto, R., Rolon, P.A., et al. (1999) Independent and Joint Effects of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on the Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Men and Women. International Journal of Cancer, 82, 657-664.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990827)82:5<657::AID-IJC7>3.0.CO;2-C

[4]   WHO (2010) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases.
http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report_full_en.pdf

[5]   World Health Organization (2015) STEPwise Approach to Monitoring (STEPS).
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/en/

[6]   INSAE and ICF International (2013) National Institute of Statistics and Economic Analysis (INSAE) and ICF International. Demographic and Health Survey (EDSB IV) of Benin 2011-2012. Calverton, MD.

[7]   Nubukpo, P., Gbary, A.R., Ouendo, E.M., Kounouhehoua, N., Segnon, J., Laqueille, X., et al. (2012) Smoking in the General Population in Benin. Alcoology and Addictology, 34, 265-272.

[8]   Ministry of Health (2016) Final Report of the Survey for the Surveillance of Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases using the STEPSwise Approach of the WHO STEPS 2015 SURVEY in Benin. National Program for the Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

[9]   World Health Organization. Consultation on obesity Classification according to Body Mass Index.Geneva; 1993.

[10]   World Health Organization (2008) Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. WHO, Geneva.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44583/9789241501491_eng.pdf;
jsessionid=84221925D95DDECB187F2454821


[11]   World Health Organization (2014) WHO STEPS Questionnaire (Basic and Expanded Module).

[12]   Bennett, S., Woods, T., Liyanage, W. and Smith, D. (1991) A Simplified General Method for Cluster-Sample Surveys of Health in Developing Countries. World Health Statistics Quarterly, 44, 98-106.

[13]   Longo, M. (2005) Democratic Republic of Congo (City of Kinshasa) STEPS Survey 2005 Factsheet.
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/2005_DRC_FactSheet_EN.pdf

[14]   Tesfaye, F. (2003) Ethiopia (Butajira) STEPS Survey 2003 Fact Sheet.
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/2006_Ethiopia_FactSheet_EN.pdf

[15]   Zambia Ministry of Health, World Health Organization Country Office (2008) Prevalence Rates of the Common Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Lusaka District, Zambia.
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/2008_Zambia_FactSheet_EN.pdf?Ua=1

[16]   Ministry of Health (2008) Final Report of the Survey for the Surveillance of Risk Factors for Non Communicable Diseases Using the STEPSwise Approach of WHO Survey “STEPS 2008” in Benin. National Program for the Control of Non Communicable Diseases.

[17]   Kabwama, S.N., Ndyanabangi, S., Mutungi, G., Wesonga, R., Bahendeka, S.K. and Guwatudde, D. (2016) Tobacco Use and Associated Factors among Adults in Uganda: Findings from a Nationwide Survey. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 261, 1169-1173.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0093-8

[18]   Mayige, M. (2012) Tanzania STEPS Survey 2012 Fact.
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/UR_Tanzania_FactSheet_2012.pdf?ua=1

[19]   Damasceno, A.A. (2005) Mozambique STEPS Survey 2005 Factsheet.
http://www.who.int/chp/steps/2005_Mozambique_FactSheet_EN.pdf?u=1

[20]   Public Health France (2016) Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin.

[21]   Al-Kubaisya, W., Abdullaha, N., Al-Nuaimya, H., MuzaKahnb, S., Halawanyc, G. and Kurdyc, S. (2010) Factors Associated with Smoking Behavior among University Students in Syria Pacific. International Conference on Environment-Behavior Studies, Kuching, December 2010.

[22]   Sung, S.C. and Kyoung, H. (2014) Risk Factors for Current Smoking among American and South Korean Adolescents, 2005-2011. Clinical Scholarship, 46, 408-415.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12099

[23]   Khanal, V., Adhikari, M. and Karki, S. (2013) Social Determinants of Tobacco Consumption among Nepalese Men: Findings from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 20011. Harm Education Journal, 10, 10.

[24]   Ministry of Health (2010) Final Report of the STEPS TOGO 2010 Survey. Non-Communicable Diseases Department of Division and Epidemiology.

[25]   Ministry of Health (2013) Report of the National Survey on the Prevalence of the Main Common Risk Factors for Non Communicable Diseases in Burkina Faso STEPS 2013 Survey.

[26]   Ali, Y.A., Azhar, I., Khalif, B.M., Ronald, E.M., Ashfaq, A. and Sania, M. (2008) Investigating Socio-Economic-Demographic Determinants of Tobacco Use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 8, 50.

[27]   Guignard, R., Beck, F., Richard, J.-B., Lermenier, A., Wilkin, J.L. and Nguyen- Thanh, V. (2015) Smoking in France in 2014: Characteristics and Recent Evolutions. Evolutions Results of Studies and Research in Prevention and Health Education, 31, 1-6.

 
 
Top