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 GEP  Vol.6 No.7 , July 2018
Contribution to the Ground Water Hydrology of the Quaternary Aquifer in West Ismailia Area, Egypt
Abstract: Hydrologic conditions of the ground water of the Quaternary aquifer in west Ismailia area, Egypt, were characterized based on new hydrologic data collected in 2017. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial deposits. The grain size distribution results indicate that the major part of the aquifer deposits is formed of medium to coarse grained sand with medium uniformity coefficients ranging between 2.5 and 10. They also reflect the heterogeneity, anisotropy and high productivity of the aquifer. The estimated aquifer parameters range from 29% to 41% for total porosity, from 18.71 m/day to 63.95 m/day for horizontal hydraulic conductivity, from 8.94 m/day to 61.6 m/day for vertical hydraulic conductivity, from 1.01 to 4.27 for anisotropy and from 1870 m2/day to 6549 m2/day for transmissivity. The ground water flows mainly from the north and northeast recharge sources (Ismailia and El Manaief canals) and from the south recharge area (Miocene aquifer), with an average hydraulic gradient of 0.00438. The recharge rate to the aquifer (from the southern area) and the Darcy’s velocity of ground water are estimated to be 447 × 106 m3/year and 0.203 m/day (on average), respectively. A great change in the hydrologic setting of the aquifer is occurred during the period of 1992-2017, where the groundwater flow has changed during that period. The aquifer contains fresh to saline water. An oxidizing (alkaline) environment is reported for the aquifer, as revealed from the relationship between the redox potential (185 - 836 mV) and pH (5.2 - 7.5 standard units). This indicated the capability of ground water to dissolve heavy metals associated to rock-forming minerals. A wide variation in the concentrations of total dissolved solids (320 - 7385 mg/l) and dissolved oxygen (2.13 - 8.4 mg/l) in the Quaternary aquifer is observed, reflecting the local variation of the environmental and geologic conditions and indicating the influence of different recharge sources.
Cite this paper: El-Sayed, S. (2018) Contribution to the Ground Water Hydrology of the Quaternary Aquifer in West Ismailia Area, Egypt. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 134-158. doi: 10.4236/gep.2018.67010.
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