IJG  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2011
Active Deformations at the Churachandpur Mao Fault (CMF) in Indo Burma Ranges: Multidisciplinary Evidences
ABSTRACT
Northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent is seismically active region with excessive rainfall and frequent landslides, which cause disruption of the road networks for couple of months in every year. The region has a typical morphotectonic setup where many active thrusts and faults have affected the landforms as well as the major part of the terrain. A prominent creeping strike-slip fault, named Chrachandpur Mao Fault (CMF), trending NS, is one of the triggering factors for frequent landslides, creeping low magnitude earthquakes. The life line of Manipur, national high way NH39 traverses through this fault in Manipur, hence the traffic is disrupted during the monsoon season. Based on the GPS campaign mode studies on western and eastern sides of the CMF, it is observed that there is a change in the crustal velocities from 16 - 22 mm/yr in east to 33 - 42 mm/yr in the west. Micro-deformations are also observed; the displacements along the vertical, N-S and E-W components are –0.111 mm/yr (downward), 0.03 mm/yr (north) and –0.011 mm/yr (west). The net displacement is 0.126 mm/yr with an azimuth of N 85? and dipping 13? towards west. Neotectonic development along the CMF with the GPS measurements suggest an aseismic nature of the fault with dextral component. Fault plane solutions of the earthquakes show northerly directed principal Paxis indicating the extension (T-axis) along eastwest. The resulting creeping of micro-deformation towards the western slopes of the terrain is aligned with the principal Taxis. The creeping triggers the microseismicity as well as the landslides along the CMF.

Cite this paper
nullA. Kumar, M. Sanoujam, L. Sunil and T. Dolendro, "Active Deformations at the Churachandpur Mao Fault (CMF) in Indo Burma Ranges: Multidisciplinary Evidences," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 597-609. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2011.24062.
References
[1]   P. Evans, “The Tertiary succession in Assam: Geology and Metallurgy Institute of India,” Transactions in Me- neralogy, Vol. 30, 1932, pp. 174-233.

[2]   M. Morisawa and J. T. Hack, “Tectonic Geomorphology,” Allen and Unwin, Boston, 1985.

[3]   D. Merritts and T. Hesterberg, “Stream Networks and Long Term Surface Uplift in the New Madrid Seismic Zone,” Science, Vol. 265, No. 5175, 1994, pp. 1081- 1084. doi:10.1126/science.265.5175.1081

[4]   C. A. Keller and N. Pinter, “Active Tectonics: Earthquake, Uplift and Landscape,” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1996.

[5]   J. Tricart, “Structural Geomorphology,” Longman, London, 1974.

[6]   C. R. Twidale, “Structural Landforms,” Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1971.

[7]   S. A. Schumm, J. F. Dumont and J. M. Holbrook, “Active Tectonics and Alluvial Rivers,” Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000.

[8]   M. Goldsworthy and J. Jackson, “Active Normal Fault Evolution in Greece Revealed by Geomorphology and Drainage Pattern,” Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 157, No. 5, 2000, pp. 967-981. doi:10.1144/jgs.157.5.967

[9]   A. Kumar and S. Manichandra, “Landslide Studies along the National Highway (NH 39) in Manipur,” Natural Hazards, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2007, pp. 603-614, doi:10.1007/s11069-006-9024-y

[10]   R. Malservisi, K. P. Furlong and C. R. Gans, “Using Microseismicity to Map Creep on a Fault Plane: Hints from Modeling the Hayward Fault, California (USA),” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 234, No. 3-4, 2005, pp. 421-435. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.02.039

[11]   F. Waldhauser and W. L. Ellsworth, “Fault Structure and Mechanics of the Hayward Fault, California, from Double-Difference Earthquake Locations,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. B3, 2002, pp. 2054-2068. doi:10.1029/2000JB000084

[12]   R. W. Fleming, and A. M. Johnson, “Structures Associated with Strike-Slip Faults That Bound Landslide Elements,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 27, No. 1-4, 1989, pp. 39-114. doi:10.1016/0013-7952(89)90031-8

[13]   J. C. Savage, and R. O. Burford, “Discussion of Paper by C. H. Scholz and T. J. Fitch, ‘Strain Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault’,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 76, No. 26, 1971, pp. 6469-6479. doi:10.1029/JB076i026p06469

[14]   J. Jackson, V. R. Dissen and K. Berryman, “Tilting of Active Folds and Faults in the Manawatu Region, New Zealand: Evidence from Surface Drainage Patterns,” New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1998, pp. 377-385. doi:10.1080/00288306.1998.9514817

[15]   A. Okada, “Fault Topography and Rate of Faulting along the Median Tectonic Line in the Drainage Basin of the River Yoshino, Northeastern Shikoku, Japan,” Geographical Review of Japan, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1980, pp. 1-21. doi:10.4157/grj.43.1

[16]   Q. Deng, S. Chen, F. Song, S. Zhu, Y. Wang, D. Jiao, B. C. Burchfiel, P. Molnar, L. Royden and P. Zhang, “Variation in Geometry and Amount of Slip on the Haiyuan Fault Zone. China and the Surface Rupture of the 1920 Haiyuan Earthquake, Maurice Ewing Series 6,” American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 1986, pp. 171-182.

[17]   Y. Q. Zang, P. Vergely and J. Mercier, “Active Faulting in and along the Quinling Range (China) Inferred from SPOT Imagery Analysis and Extension Tectonics of South China,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 243, No. 1-2, 1995, pp. 69-95. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(94)00192-C

[18]   E. A. Keller, “Investigation of Active Tectonics: Use of Surficial Earth Processes,” National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1986, pp. 136-147.

[19]   R. E. Wallace, “Note on Stream Channels Offset by the San Andreas Fault, Southern Coast Ranges, California,” Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, Vol. 11, 1967, pp. 6-20.

[20]   K. Sieh, “Slip along the San Andreas Fault Associated with the Great 1857 Earthquake,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 68, 1978, pp. 1421- 1428.

[21]   C. R. Allen, A. R. Gillespie, Y. Han, K. E. Sieh, B. Zang and C. Zhu, “Red River and Associated Faults, Yunnan Province, China: Quaternary Geology, Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 95, No. 6, 1984, pp. 686-700. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1984)95<686:RRAAFY>2.0.CO;2

[22]   J. T. Hack, “Stream-Profile Analysis and Stream Gradient Index,” US Geological Survey Journal of Research, Vol. 1, 1973, pp. 421-429.

[23]   E. A. Keller and N. Pinter, “Active Tectonics: Earthquake, Uplift and Landscapes,” 2nd Edition, Prentice- Hall, Upper Saddler River, 2002.

[24]   T. J. Fitch, “Plate Convergence, Transcurrent Faults, and Internal Deformation Adjacent to Southeast Asia and western Pacific,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 77, No. 23, 1972, pp. 4432-4460. doi:10.1029/JB077i023p04432

[25]   P. Molnar, T. J. Fitch and F. T. Wu, “Fault Plane Solutions of Shallow Earthquakes and Contemporary Tectonics in Asia,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 19, 1973, pp. 101-112.

[26]   U. Chandra, “Tectonic Segmentation of the Burmese- Indonesian Arc,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 105, No. 1-4, 1984, pp. 279-290.

[27]   A. Y. Le Dain, P. Tapponier and P. Molnar, “Active Faulting and Tectonics of Burma and Surrounding Region,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 89, 1984, pp. 453-472.

[28]   M. M. Saikia, “Seismic Activity in Northeastern Region of India,” In Earthquake Prediction—Present Status, 1986, pp. 223-233.

[29]   J. F. Ni, M. G. Speziale, M. Bevis, W. E. Holt, T. C. Wallace and W. R. Seager, “Accretionary Tectonics of Burma and the Three Dimensional Geometry of the Burma Subduction,” Geology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1989, pp. 68-71. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0068:ATOBAT>2.3.CO;2

[30]   W. P. Chen and P. Molnar, “Source Parameters of Earthquakes and Intraplate Deformation beneath the Shillong Plateau and the Northern Indo-Burman Range,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B8, 1990, pp. 12527-12552. doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12527

[31]   M. Guzman-Speziale and J. F. Ni, “Seismicity and Active Tectonics of the Western Sunda Arc,” In: A. Yin and T. M. Harrison, Eds., The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996, pp. 63-84.

[32]   N. P. Rao and M. R. Kumar, “Evidences for Cessation of Indian Plate Subduction in the Burmese Arc Region,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, No. 20, 1999, pp. 3149-3152. doi:10.1029/1999GL005396

[33]   S. P. Satyabala, “Subduction in the Indo-Burma Region: Is It still active?” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, No. 16, 1998, pp. 3189-3192. doi:10.1029/98GL02256

[34]   S. P. Satyabala, “Oblique Plate Convergence in the Indo-Burma (Myanmar) Subduction Region,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 160, 2003, pp. 1611-1650.

[35]   M. Radha Krishna and T. D. Sanu, “Seismotectonics and Rates of Active Crustal Deformation in the Burmese Arc and Adjacent Regions,” Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2000, pp. 401-421. doi:10.1016/S0264-3707(99)00074-5

[36]   N. P. Rao, “Deformation of the Subducted Indian lithospheric slab in the Burmese Arc,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2005, pp. 3-7.

[37]   M. Becker, E. Reinhart, S. B. Nordin, D. Angermann, G. Michel and C. Reigber, “Improving the Velocity Field in South and South-East Asia: The Third Round of GEODYSSEA,” Earth Planets Space, Vol. 52, 2000, pp. 721-726.

[38]   L. Sunil, “Crustal Deformation Studies of Manipur using Global Positioning System,” Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Manipur University, Manipur, 2007.

[39]   S. Manichandra, “Seismotectonic Studies in Manipur,” Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Manipur University, Manipur, 2002, pp. 81-91.

[40]   W. X. Du, R. S. Lynn, B. E. Shaw and C. H. Scholz, “Triggered Aseismic Fault Slip from Nearby Earthquakes, Static or Dynamic Effect?” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. B2, 2003, pp. 1-21.

[41]   A. Gosar, “Monitoring of Micro-Deformations along Idrija and Ra?a Faults in W Slovenia,” Geologija, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2007, pp. 45-54. doi:10.5474/geologija.2007.004

 
 
Top